What Can Elementary Teachers Do with Technology? There's an App for That Secondly, imagine a third or fourth grade teacher exploring the sum of 2,164 and 3,799. Students are required to compose numbers in concrete ways that connect to the abstract vertical algorithm in these grade levels. Third grade teachers can extend TEKS 4(A): solve with fluency one-step and two-step problems involving addition and subtraction within 1,000 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and the relationship between addition and subtraction; and fourth grade teachers can address concepts associated with TEKS 4(A): add and subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place using the standard algorithm. Suppose these third and fourth grade teachers have access to a classroom set of iPads, each equipped with Brainingcamp's Base Ten Blocks App3. Figure 2 demonstrates how a teacher could use this application to help students gain a better understanding of composing tens when adding large numbers. Figure 2: iPad applications can help students connect concrete concepts with procedural algorithms. The teacher uses the addition function of the Base Ten Blocks Manipulative App3, which creates columns for each block and row for the two addends and sum. The teacher can help students explore how the application can model these four digit numbers. The teacher demonstrates how the app allows the user to compose tens by highlighting a set of blocks, selecting a function that composes blocks (in blue), and recording the algorithmic procedure. The teacher can then complete the sum, using the app, while focusing on the connection between the concrete model and the abstract algorithm. This app generates the composed blocks (in another color), which helps students better connect the concrete concept illustrated in the blocks with the abstract recording of the algorithm. Thirdly, imagine a fifth or sixth grade teacher exploring algebraic patterns involving perimeter and strings of regular polygons. The student objective is to determine a rule for the perimeter when any number of regular polygons are connected in a string. For the following examples, the teacher does not have any manipulatives of polygons with five or seven sides, but has access to a single iPad that is equipped with the NumberKiz Pro App4. Figure 3 demonstrates how a teacher could use the iPad to help students explore patterns and rules related to polygons and perimeter. A fifth grade teacher could extend TEKS 4(H): represent and solve problems related to perimeter and/or area and related to volume, while a sixth grade teacher could address the TEKS 6(B): write an equation that represents the relationship between independent and dependent quantities from a table. www.txmathteachers.org Spring/Summer 2018 | 19http://www.txmathteachers.org

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