Community-Building Discourse Practices in Math Workshop " What is Math Workshop? Implementing math workshop is complex and begins with the understanding that every student has the potential to understand mathematics conceptually. " Have you ever wondered what a mathematical community would look like in an elementary classroom? What if the majority of interactions within this mathematical community encompassed rich, mathematical discourse practices that promote deep learning? According to Hattie, Fisher, and Frey (2017), mathematical discourse extends beyond discussion and encompasses the different ways that students agree, disagree, represent, talk, and think about mathematics. Specifically, mathematical discourse "includes not only ways of talking, acting, interacting, thinking, believing, reading, writing but also mathematical values, beliefs, and points of view" (Moschkovich, 2003, p. 326). The fundamental goal of mathematical discourse is to transcend traditional procedure- and rule-driven approaches to mathematics instruction and develop conceptual understandings about mathematics among all students (Griffin, League, Griffin, & Bae, 2013). Furthermore, mathematical discourse transforms classrooms into communities where "students hear one another's ideas and have opportunities to articulate and refine or revise their own," while also developing "confidence in themselves as mathematical knowers" (Ball, 1993, p. 394). In 2014, the National Council of Teachers in Mathematics [NCTM] called for teaching practices that "facilitate discourse among students to build shared understanding of mathematical ideas" (p. 29). However, the concepts of 'community' and 'discourse' are not novel within the realm of mathematics instruction. For over 25 years, much literature has provided evidence supporting the notion that establishing a mathematical community to facilitate discourse practices develops mathematical understandings among elementary-aged students (e.g., Ball, 1993; Hiebert & Wearne, 1993; Prawat, 1989; Wood, Williams, McNeal, 2006). While there are many effective teaching practices that support this type of mathematical community, we propose the use of math workshop. We believe that teachers could utilize math workshop as an effective strategy for supporting rich discourse to build community. In this article, we provide a description of math workshop and how its structure establishes a mathematical community to facilitate discourse practices among all students. Next, we present three classroom vignettes of elementary teachers who implement math workshop at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade levels in varied ways. We conclude by offering recommendations and resources for teachers who are interested in learning more about math workshop. 6 | Spring/Summer 2018 Math workshop is a promising approach that transforms a class of students into "a community of mathematicians" (Hoffer, 2012, p. 5) and addresses all levels of learning (Hattie et al., 2017). According to Hoffer (2012), the structure of math workshop consists of four components: 1. Opening: Students engage with a problem connected to the lesson objective that unlocks prior knowledge. 2. Mini-lesson: The teacher develops student understandings with the lesson objective through the use of verbal explanations, or talk-alouds (Wright, 2014). During the mini-lesson, the teacher may introduce new information, revisit previous information, model thinking, or review strategies for work time (Hoffer, 2012). 3. Work Time: Students engage with a challenging, collaborative task in small groups that extends their thinking with the lesson objective. The teacher moves among small groups and confers with students. 4. Reflection: At the end of the lesson, students reflect upon their metacognitive understandings with the lesson objective. The math workshop structure supports a paradigm shift in how mathematics is taught and learned (Hoffer, 2012). In math workshop, the teacher is no longer a presenter of information, but rather a facilitator of learning. Students are no longer passive recipients of information. Instead they "devote the majority of their time to thinking and talking about important mathematical ideas" (p. 3). As students engage with mathematical discourse practices individually and collaboratively, they utilize language, perspectives, and cognitive functions that are rooted in unique cultural and social identities (Moschkovich, 2007). In other words, understandings and contributions towards the co-construction of knowledge in math workshop are influenced and shaped by each student's unique "ways of behaving, interacting, valuing, thinking, believing, speaking, and often reading and writing" (Gee, 2012, p. 3). Implementing math workshop is complex and begins with the understanding that every student has the potential to understand mathematics conceptually (Hoffer, 2012). Therefore, the most critical aspect of designing a math workshop lesson is the third component, Work Time task. While planning for this task, the teacher must consider the learning levels of each student and incorporate differentiated tasks based upon learning needs. Work Time tasks must align with the lesson objective and promote exploration, sense-making, and the application of mathematical procedures (Hattie et al., 2017). The primary goal of the Work Time task is to present students with challenging and rigorous problems that promote engagement and persistence through the use of productive discourse practices in a supportive mathematical community (Boaler, 2016). Texas Mathematics Teacher

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