Efficient Plant April 2022 - 12

feature | cybersecurity
Fig. 1: Industrial IoT Maturity Model
Digitalization
Industry 4.0
work, the site business network, and
perhaps the internet/cloud. Th e machine
and plant manufacturing networks are
squarely OT, while business and internet/
cloud networking is considered IT.
Th ere can be many small, localized
" How to apply
autonomous
responses? "
" What will
happen? "
" What is
happening? "
Computerization Connectivity Data analysis
Predictive
capacity
Adaptability
Many end users and OEMs have taken the fi rst digitalization steps toward automation
maturity, but progressing into Industry 4.0 capabilities calls for capable and secure
communication methods.
becomes possible to predict what will happen
in the coming hours/days/weeks. Th en,
with closed-loop communications back to
the factory fl oor, automation systems can be
designed to respond and adjust operating
conditions adaptably and autonomously.
Connectivity makes remote access, analytics,
and responses possible. Th e benefi ts
are applicable to end users, OEM building-automated
equipment, and system
integrators who support these groups.
However, eff ective connectivity must also
overcome cybersecurity and other risks.
UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES
While a cyberattack-where a malicious
party either disrupts operation or extracts
data-is oſt en perceived as the greatest
threat associated with connectivity, there
are other equally valid concerns. An unexpected
example is the risk of not adopting
remote access at all. Failing to implement
remote access results in lost opportunities
12 | EFFICIENTPLANTMAG.COM
for improving effi ciency and quality, and for
reducing operating and support costs and
eff ort.
Other connectivity concerns and risks
include:
connecting to an active system, which
might disrupt operation
connecting a laptop to a system and inadvertently
enabling a virus or other breach
making unintended confi guration or
fi rmware changes.
Th e problem of achieving secure connectivity
is compounded by the fact that
operational technology (OT) machines
typically have 15+ year lifecycles, which is
far longer that IT asset lifetimes of 5 years
or less. Cybersecurity threats change rapidly
and therefore require user vigilance over the
long OT lifetimes.
In the most general terms, wired and
wireless networking technologies facilitate
connectivity from edge-located machines
and sensors to the plant production netmachine
networks, each interconnected
with the plant manufacturing network, and
all within the OT network. Human-machine
interfaces (HMIs), installed locally to PLCs,
are almost always part of the OT network.
More advanced SCADA/MES/ERP systems
can exist in either the OT or IT network,
or both.
In an ideal world, every networkconnected
device-whether a sensor, PLC,
PC or other-would provide its own
impeccable security provisions. Th e reality
is that the vast majority of legacy devices,
and many modern devices, simply do not
have these security provisions. If they do, it's
a massive and basically unworkable burden
for users to keep the multitude of security
fi rmware and settings up to date.
Th e answer for protecting all these assets
in a practical manner, while providing the
necessary connectivity, is to apply an IoT
edge gateway to each machine (Fig. 2, p.
14). Th is isolates the machine network from
higher-level networks by only enabling specifi
cally confi gured connectivity. Integrated
IoT edge gateways are multifunctional
devices that include:
a router to separate networks
a fi rewall to block unwanted connections
a modem to securely connect to the
internet
the ability for remote users to connect to
devices on the machine network for programming
or debugging
the ability to interface with a cloud-based
IoT platform and provide data collection,
visualize data on PCs or mobile devices, and
send alarms/notifi cations to specifi c users.
An IoT edge gateway protects the
underlying machine network from the
APRIL 2022
http://www.EFFICIENTPLANTMAG.COM

Efficient Plant April 2022

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