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« SPECTROSCOPY
result for, and exhibited absorptions characteristic of, lidocaine HCl
recrystallized with chloroform (Figure 3F).
SERS: The suspect dermal fillers previously analyzed using FT-IR
(Figures 2 and 3) were prepared for SERS analysis by diluting the gel
using 10% MeOH in water followed by the addition of Ag colloids and
aqueous 3 M KBr. This procedure allowed the lidocaine present in the
sample solution to be preferentially enhanced and therefore detected,
even in the presence of other components such as HA and PDMS. For
example, the SERS spectra of this sample solution mixture collected
with Raman spectrometers equipped with 785 nm (Figure 4iA) and
1064 nm lasers (Figure 4iiA) were consistent with those of a lidocaine
HCl standard solution mixed with Ag colloids and aqueous 3 M KBr
(Figures 4iB and 4iiB, respectively).
The approach presented here is simple, has the potential to be portable
and does not require the use of expensive reagents or radio-labeled
standards. FT-IR spectroscopy has been shown to be highly selective
for detecting a wide range of analytes and can be adequately applied
in the analysis of dermal fillers labeled to contain HA and lidocaine.
The FT-IR sensitivity was improved by oven drying the gels or via
micro-liquid-liquid extractions. Although Raman analysis of crosslinked
HA found in dermal fillers using handheld spectrometers has
not been successful due to poor signal intensity resulting from nonfavorable
(polar) functional groups (data not shown), the developed
SERS method overcomes the sensitivity limitations of conventional
Raman and permits the analysis of lidocaine. The results presented
here reveal that these two complementary techniques can be used in
the laboratory and potentially in the field to analyze the components
found in dermal fillers. Although we have only shown one example
here, the outlined procedure has been successfully used to analyze
dermal fillers containing other compounds in the laboratory and in
the field.
Disclaimer
*The contents of this article are the author's opinions and should not be
considered as opinions or policy of the US FDA. The mention of trade
names and manufacturers is for technical accuracy and should not be
considered as endorsement of a specific product or manufacturer.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Figure 4i and 4ii. A). SERS spectrum of dermal filler gel diluted
with 10% MeOH in water and mixed with colloidal silver and KBr
aggregating agent; B). SERS spectrum of 100 µg/mL lidocaine
HCl standard in 10% MeOH in water solution with colloidal silver
and aqueous KBr. All spectra collected using TruScan RM (785 nm
laser) are shown in Fig. 4i(A and B) while those collected using
Progeny ResQ (1064 nm laser) are shown in Fig. 4ii(A and B).
8.
Mobayed N, Nguyen JK, Jagdeo J. Minimally Invasive Facial Cosmetic Procedures for the
Millennial Aesthetic Patient. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(1):100-103. doi: 10.36849/
JDD.2020.4641.
https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/aesthetic-cosmetic-devices/fda-approveddermal-fillers
Cheng
LY, Sun XM, Tang MY, Jin R, Cui WG, Zhang YG. An update review on recent skin fillers.
Plast Aesthet Res. 2016;3:92-99.
https://nypost.com/2019/05/01/diy-beauty-injectables-are-fueling-a-horrifying-onlineblack-market/
https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release/philadelphia-cbp-seizes-more100-shipments-illicit-dermal-fillers
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/fda-warns-against-injectablesilicone-body-contouring-and-enhancement
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/dermal-filler-dos-and-dontswrinkles-lips-and-more
Lanzarotta
A, Kelley CM. Forensic Analysis of Human Autopsy Tissue for the Presence
of Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) and Volatile Cyclic Siloxanes using Macro FT-IR, FTIR
Spectroscopic Imaging and Headspace GC-MS. J Forensic Sci. 2016;61(3):867-874.
doi:10.1111/1556-4029.13018.
9.
Crowe, JB, Lanzarotta, A, Witkowski, MR and Andria, SE. Analysis of Hypodermic Needles
and Syringes for the Presence of Blood and Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) Utilizing
Microchemical Tests and Infrared Spectroscopy. J Forensic Sci. 2015;60:1078-1084.
www.americanpharmaceuticalreview.com |
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https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/aesthetic-cosmetic-devices/fda-approved-dermal-fillers https://nypost.com/2019/05/01/diy-beauty-injectables-are-fueling-a-horrifying-online-black-market/ https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release/philadelphia-cbp-seizes-more-100-shipments-illicit-dermal-fillers/philadelphia-cbp-seizes-more https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/fda-warns-against-injectable-silicone-body-contouring-and-enhancement https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/dermal-filler-dos-and-donts-wrinkles-lips-and-more http://www.americanpharmaceuticalreview.com

APR January/February 2022

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