Fleet Maintenance - 12

From active to autonomous

Active safety systems can automate select vehicle
procedures and maneuvers for drivers. Detection,
perception, and mitigation systems, in tandem
with actuation of vehicle maneuvers beyond a
driver's direct influence, is a form of automation.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has
created a reference table that provides definitions
for the six levels of vehicle automation. Level 0
refers to no automation, while Level 5 automation
means the vehicle can operate in any conditions
without a driver. The more advanced active safety
systems are - which is determined by the levels of
detection and perception available within those
systems, and the ability to accurately translate and
transfer data into vehicle maneuvers - determines
the SAE level of automation for a specific vehicle.
Integration of the components utilized in active
safety systems can lead to the automation of more
vehicle systems. A few companies have been working to test and further develop these technologies.
TuSimple is a technology company working with
truck OEMs to develop and deliver autonomous
commercial vehicles operating on the road today.
"We are bringing a new technology, which is
autonomous systems, to maneuver the vehicle in
terms of lateral and longitudinal, and we have to
see and think through the vehicle," says Vivian
Sun, head of business development at TuSimple.
TuSimple currently has about 40 autonomous
trucks operating in the U.S. The company has
goals of scaling to hundreds of thousands of
trucks in the future. Sun says this will be realized
by developing autonomous trucks at the manufacturing level while partnering with OEMs to design
a truck specifically built to operate autonomously.
"We started a relationship with Paccar in 2017
and we started working with Navistar in 2018 ...
working collaboratively with OEMs to have an
integrated solution from the manufacturing level
has been our strategy," Sun says. "We believe that
this technology and the autonomous system needs
fundamental changes on the vehicle chassis and
all component levels of the trucks, so we have a
very integrated approach with the truck OEMs."
With this collaborative OEM integration
approach, fleets would be able to integrate these
vehicles into an existing fleet and still collaborate
within their networks, maintenance practices, and
warranty procedures.
Similar to active safety systems, vehicle automation is achieved through the addition of sensors
and computing power, further enhancing the vehicle's perception and performance capabilities.
Sun says that TuSimple's autonomous system
can be categorized into three layers: see, think, act.
To "see," or observe, is achieved through sensor
technology with cameras, radar, and lidar, as well
as global positioning systems (GPS) and inertial
measurement units (IMU) that TuSimple has been
testing. This first layer of the system perceives the
environment and delivers a representation of the
vehicle's surroundings.
To address the second layer of TuSimple's
autonomous approach, "thinking," the company
partnered with visual processing system provider NVIDIA to use their engine control unit (ECU)
platform for calculating captured sensory data.
"After we have observed all the information

12 Fleet Maintenance | December 2019

» The major technological hurdles that
need to be addressed for automated vehicle
development include utilizing artificial
intelligence to enhance machine learning and
predictive analytics, as well as building selfsufficient, redundant operating systems.
Photo courtesy of Pronto

» Even under the hood, Pronto's technology
looks similar to any other truck. It's the software
that really makes the system work. From a
technician's perspective, the electronic steering
and braking look very familiar and no different
than in a traditional truck.
Photo courtesy of Pronto

from the road, [we have to] process the information and make calculations of all the vehicle's
information around it," Sun says. This information
is processed into action.
The last layer of the TuSimple autonomous
process, "act," refers to sending the translated
information throughout the vehicle. Once the
information has been perceived, then calculated,
it is delivered to the corresponding vehicle components to initiate vehicle system response, from
steering, to braking, to activating turn signals.
Global truck manufacturer Volvo Trucks also
has an autonomous vehicle in operation for
certain use cases, named Vera. Vera is a cab-less
vehicle, embedded with cameras, lidar, radar, and
ultrasonic sensors. Vera is controlled and monitored via a separate control center. Vera's extensive
sensory equipment "ensures it can handle traffic
situations encountered along its intended route
in a safe manner," says Johan Larsson, director of
autonomous solutions, Volvo Trucks.
Vera's first assignment is a low-speed, hub-tohub application, Larsson says. Volvo Trucks
is further developing technology, operations
management, and infrastructure in order to deliver autonomous solutions for highway applications.
Commercial vehicle manufacturer Daimler
Trucks North America (DTNA) has worked on
autonomous truck technology with the development of the Freightliner Inspiration Truck.
Developed from a Freightliner Cascadia Evolution,

the Inspiration Truck serves as a proof of concept
for the company's Detroit Assurance 5.0 suite of
safety systems. Active safety systems such as the
company's proprietary Adaptive Cruise Control
PLUS with adaptive cruise control down to 0 mph,
Active Lane Assist lane departure mitigation, and
Highway Pilot Technology were integrated into
the Cascadia Evolution to transform the vehicle
into the autonomous Inspiration.
Highway Pilot Technology "links together a
sophisticated set of camera technology and radar
systems with lane stability, collision avoidance,
speed control, braking, steering, and other monitoring systems," says Brian Daniels, manager,
Detroit powertrain and component product
marketing, Daimler Trucks North America. "This
combination created an SAE Level 2 autonomous
vehicle operation system."

Maintenance implications

Maintaining the active safety systems themselves,
the components of these systems, and continuing
to maintain the entire vehicle will require a new
dynamic approach for maintenance personnel as
active safety systems become further integrated
into commercial vehicles.
A common maintenance practice fleets may
already be familiar with is cleaning sensors. With
many radar sensors being installed in the center
of the front bumper, and cameras installed behind
the windshield near the top center, maintenance
includes simply keeping the bumper clean and
clear of debris, as well as maintaining windshield
visibility, says Ognen Stojanovski, chief operating
officer and co-founder of Pronto. Pronto develops
highway safety systems for commercial trucks.
What about the components themselves?
DTNA's Daniels says that Detroit Assurance
system does not require any periodic maintenance, and that the radar it uses is self-calibrating.
Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems' sensors
also require little to no routine maintenance, says
TJ Thomas, director of marketing and customer
solutions - control group for Bendix. However,
the energy management solutions supplier does
provide its safety system's Service Data Sheets
(SDS) online at bendix.com to deliver an expla Continued Page 16


Fleet Maintenance

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Fleet Maintenance

Uptime: Top Industry Trends in 2020 and Beyond
How Active Safety Systems Pave the Way to Vehicle Autonomy
Vehicles: Steps to Understand and Prevent Corrosion
In the Bay: Remote Vehicle Management Enters a New Phase
Shop Operations: How to Prevent, Contain, and Clean Up Shop Spills
Management: A Guide to World-Class Maintenance
Training: What is a Bistable Relay?
Reman, Rebuild, Replace: What's the Difference Between a Supplier and a Supply Partner?
Diagnostics: Four Steps of an Effective Maintenance Program
Fleet Parts & Components
Tools & Equipment
Guest Editorial: Trends in Asset Telematics
Fleet Maintenance - 1
Fleet Maintenance - 2
Fleet Maintenance - 3
Fleet Maintenance - 4
Fleet Maintenance - 5
Fleet Maintenance - 6
Fleet Maintenance - 7
Fleet Maintenance - Uptime: Top Industry Trends in 2020 and Beyond
Fleet Maintenance - 9
Fleet Maintenance - How Active Safety Systems Pave the Way to Vehicle Autonomy
Fleet Maintenance - 11
Fleet Maintenance - 12
Fleet Maintenance - 13
Fleet Maintenance - 14
Fleet Maintenance - 15
Fleet Maintenance - 16
Fleet Maintenance - 17
Fleet Maintenance - 18
Fleet Maintenance - 19
Fleet Maintenance - Vehicles: Steps to Understand and Prevent Corrosion
Fleet Maintenance - 21
Fleet Maintenance - 22
Fleet Maintenance - 23
Fleet Maintenance - 24
Fleet Maintenance - 25
Fleet Maintenance - 26
Fleet Maintenance - 27
Fleet Maintenance - 28
Fleet Maintenance - 29
Fleet Maintenance - In the Bay: Remote Vehicle Management Enters a New Phase
Fleet Maintenance - 31
Fleet Maintenance - 32
Fleet Maintenance - 33
Fleet Maintenance - 34
Fleet Maintenance - 35
Fleet Maintenance - Shop Operations: How to Prevent, Contain, and Clean Up Shop Spills
Fleet Maintenance - 37
Fleet Maintenance - 38
Fleet Maintenance - 39
Fleet Maintenance - 40
Fleet Maintenance - 41
Fleet Maintenance - Management: A Guide to World-Class Maintenance
Fleet Maintenance - 43
Fleet Maintenance - Training: What is a Bistable Relay?
Fleet Maintenance - 45
Fleet Maintenance - Reman, Rebuild, Replace: What's the Difference Between a Supplier and a Supply Partner?
Fleet Maintenance - 47
Fleet Maintenance - Diagnostics: Four Steps of an Effective Maintenance Program
Fleet Maintenance - 49
Fleet Maintenance - 50
Fleet Maintenance - 51
Fleet Maintenance - Fleet Parts & Components
Fleet Maintenance - 53
Fleet Maintenance - 54
Fleet Maintenance - 55
Fleet Maintenance - 56
Fleet Maintenance - 57
Fleet Maintenance - 58
Fleet Maintenance - Tools & Equipment
Fleet Maintenance - 60
Fleet Maintenance - 61
Fleet Maintenance - 62
Fleet Maintenance - Classifieds
Fleet Maintenance - 64
Fleet Maintenance - 65
Fleet Maintenance - Guest Editorial: Trends in Asset Telematics
Fleet Maintenance - 67
Fleet Maintenance - 68
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