Fleet Maintenance - 12

Continued aim to
reduce GHG emissions
About the time OBD systems were becoming a
requirement, the U.S. EPA worked together with the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) to create the Heavy Duty National
Program - more commonly referred to as Phase 1.
The program was finalized in 2011. Phase 1 was a
joint effort through both federal organizations to
continue efforts on a further reduction in heavy
duty vehicle GHG emissions while also adding fuel
efficiency improvement considerations.
Phase 1 includes separate standards for the
entire vehicle and the engine separately, for truck
model years 2014 through 2018. Manufacturers
could meet standards by implementing new technologies and by receiving emissions credits.
Finalized in 2016, the Phase 2 GHG emissions
standards and fuel efficiency standards are a continuation of the Phase 1 regulations designed to further
improve emissions and fuel efficiency for heavy duty
vehicles. Phase 2 will impact vehicle and engine
performance standards for medium and heavy duty
truck model years 2021 through 2027, with more
stringent requirements of each phase beginning in
2021, then 2024, and again in 2027.
The Phase 2 standards also initially included
box trailers from 2018 through 2027 model years,
while custom and flatbed trailers were not part
of the official rulings. Recent legal developments,
however, have delayed any type of requirement in
this segment of the heavy duty industry.
Once in full effect, vehicles sold under and
meeting final Phase 2 standards are expected to
lower CO2 emissions by about 1.1 billion metric
tons, save $170 billion in fuel costs, and reduce oil
consumption by up to 2 billion barrels over the
lifetime of the vehicles, according to the U.S. EPA's
Phase 2 final ruling documentation.

Latest developments and the
Cleaner Trucks Initiative
In early 2020, the U.S. EPA announced the
introduction of an advanced notice of proposed
rulemaking, or ANPRM, for the Cleaner Trucks
Initiative (CTI). An ANPRM is not a proposed rule;
it is a draft provided to stakeholders - which can
be fleets, end-users, industry organizations, environmental groups, and more - in order to gather
input and make revisions.
While the title of the CTI ANPRM does not
outright state the proposed rulemaking's focus,
the proposed rule targets lowering NOx emissions limits even more than the current federal
requirements. It is important to note that this is
a separate proposal from the federal Phase 1 or
Phase 2 regulations already in place.
"The low-NOx rule is going to be a separate,
distinct rulemaking ramping down NOx emissions
for new engines. The last NOx rule for trucking
was finalized in January 2001," says American
Trucking Associations' Energy and Environmental
Counsel Glen Kedzie, of the Phase 1 GHG emissions standards. The Phase 1 standards were first
enforced on 2007 model year on-highway trucks.
While trucking is federally regulated, oper-

12 Fleet Maintenance | February 2020

cles that will meet the needs of the latest Phase 2
GHG and fuel efficiency standards, as well as the
NOx reduction technologies.

How does this impact my fleet?
»»On-board diagnostics are a federal requirement
to help monitor emissions on a heavy duty truck.
168654196 | Carolyn Franks | Dreamstime.com

ations of that vehicle are also beholden to state
regulations. Case in point, the state of California
has more stringent vehicle design and operating
regulations for heavy duty trucks compared to
federal rules. California has one of the worst air
quality measurements in the country, says Kedzie,
and must focus on continually improving that
air quality dictated by the Clean Air Act requirements. With this, the California Air Resource
Board (CARB) and state lawmakers have taken
additional steps to lower GHG emissions, particularly the focus on a further reduction in NOx.
"Given the significant ozone and [particulate matter] air quality challenges in the state of
California, CARB has taken a number of steps to
establish standards beyond the current EPA requirements to further reduce NOx emissions from heavy
duty vehicles and engines in their state," notes the
CTI ANPRM document. A voluntary state program
created in 2013 was designed to allow manufacturers to certify engines emitting lower levels of
NOx. There are three tiers of certification levels,
with the highest being a 90 percent reduction in
NOx emissions from the 2010 federal NOx emissions regulations. To date, natural gas and liquefied
petroleum are the only two engine types that have
been certified at this lowest NOx-emitting level.
While the U.S. EPA has followed suit with the
latest CTI proposal, it is in the beginning stages
of a regulation compared to the progress made
so far by CARB. "You have California trying to
finalize something in the next couple of months,
and [the] EPA is still trying to bounce concepts off
the stakeholders," Kedzie says.
The disparity currently is that CARB is looking
to enact these lower NOx emissions level requirements in the state of California for 2024. The earliest possible implementation at the federal level,
according to the CTI proposal, would be 2027.
"There's going to be a regulation going forward,"
Kedzie says. "We can either let California drive the
direction of it or we can work with those that we're
accustomed to working with [at the federal level]
using our data, hoping that we'll get a better shake
at the end of the day. It makes more sense for us
to have one national standard, implemented in a
reasonable glide-path, using sound science [and]
thoroughly tested technologies."
Kedzie adds that considerations should be
taken when establishing this next round of national emissions standards. It is imperative that new
technology to reduce NOx does not negatively
impact existing system designs that may cause
"fuel economy hits" or in other ways increase other
GHG emissions.
When it comes to this latest proposal, the CTI is
also designed to ensure that manufacturers can
focus on developing products, systems, and vehi-

The GHG emissions and fuel efficiency regulation enforcement starts with manufacturers and
suppliers certifying their products meet the federal regulations. This is done through testing and
validation during development and production.
While the industry must rely on vehicle manufacturers and parts suppliers to ensure these
regulations are met, it is imperative that fleets
do their part as well. Drivers and fleets have a
responsibility once that vehicle is in operation
to ensure upkeep and compliance. Compliance,
Safety, Accountability (CSA) roadside vehicle
inspections provide some form of oversight.
Additionally, fleets must consider the importance
of managing any diagnostic trouble codes and
subsequent repairs to ensure the most efficient
vehicle operation.
This also means keeping assets maintained on
regular interval schedules, and adhering to manufacturer service guidelines, say truck manufacturers.
"We recommend following OEM maintenance and
preventive maintenance guidelines and reviewing
spec sheets to understand [what] was originally
spec'd," says Kelly Gedert, director, product marketing, Freightliner and Detroit Components. "It is
important to maintain similar components to not
affect the compliance of a vehicle."
"Vehicle and engine OEMs will add information
into the operator's manual about which parts and
systems may be GHG emissions-related and therefore need to be replaced with the same or better-performing parts. The vehicle must be maintained in
the same configuration and in good working order
as when the vehicle was built," adds Carl Hergart,
director of powertrain and advanced engineering at
the Paccar Technical Center. The Paccar Technical
Center provides testing and development for the
company's Kenworth, Peterbilt, and DAF truck
lines. Hergart suggests using sound judgment when
it comes to service or parts replacement, to validate
the modifications would not indirectly or directly
increase vehicle emissions.

What's next?

The original Phase 2 regulations, for the first time,
included trailers as part of the emissions regulations. However, in October of 2017, the Truck
Trailer Manufacturers Association (TTMA) petitioned to have trailers removed from the regulations. This request was granted and requires
further review from the U.S. EPA. As it stands
today, the trailer category is not being considered
as part of the Phase 2 emissions standards. It is
important to note, a similar emissions regulation
in California dictated a similar provision for trailers. That provision has been stayed for two years.
In part due to federal regulations and due to
improve total cost of ownership, designs for heavy
duty on-highway trucks will continue to change.
With that, updates to the design and function of
these vehicles will also have a direct impact on
vehicle service and maintenance methods.


Fleet Maintenance

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Fleet Maintenance

Vehicles: What's Next in Federal Vehicle Emissions Standards?
In the Bay: Technician Tool Support
Shop Operations: State of the Industry
Taking the Extra Step to Prevent Wheel-offs
Planning Ahead for Vehicle Cybersecurity Threats
Management: How Do You Know When to Replace a Vehicle?
Economic Outlook: Won't Get Fooled Again
Letter from the Editor: Real-world Views on Parts, Service, and Operations
Tools & Equipment
Guest Editorial: Moisture in Trailer Brakes is Not Just a Nuisance
Hand & Specialty Tools Supplement
Specialty Hand Tools: The Problem Solvers
Time to Multitask
Get a Hold on Hand Tool Safety
Electric Vehicle Tool Set
Tool Review
Fleet Maintenance - 1
Fleet Maintenance - 2
Fleet Maintenance - 3
Fleet Maintenance - 4
Fleet Maintenance - 5
Fleet Maintenance - 6
Fleet Maintenance - 7
Fleet Maintenance - 8
Fleet Maintenance - 9
Fleet Maintenance - Vehicles: What's Next in Federal Vehicle Emissions Standards?
Fleet Maintenance - 11
Fleet Maintenance - 12
Fleet Maintenance - 13
Fleet Maintenance - 14
Fleet Maintenance - 15
Fleet Maintenance - 16
Fleet Maintenance - 17
Fleet Maintenance - 18
Fleet Maintenance - 19
Fleet Maintenance - 20
Fleet Maintenance - 21
Fleet Maintenance - 22
Fleet Maintenance - 23
Fleet Maintenance - 24
Fleet Maintenance - 25
Fleet Maintenance - In the Bay: Technician Tool Support
Fleet Maintenance - 27
Fleet Maintenance - 28
Fleet Maintenance - 29
Fleet Maintenance - Shop Operations: State of the Industry
Fleet Maintenance - 31
Fleet Maintenance - 32
Fleet Maintenance - 33
Fleet Maintenance - 34
Fleet Maintenance - 35
Fleet Maintenance - 36
Fleet Maintenance - 37
Fleet Maintenance - Taking the Extra Step to Prevent Wheel-offs
Fleet Maintenance - 39
Fleet Maintenance - Planning Ahead for Vehicle Cybersecurity Threats
Fleet Maintenance - 41
Fleet Maintenance - 42
Fleet Maintenance - 43
Fleet Maintenance - Management: How Do You Know When to Replace a Vehicle?
Fleet Maintenance - 45
Fleet Maintenance - Economic Outlook: Won't Get Fooled Again
Fleet Maintenance - 47
Fleet Maintenance - Letter from the Editor: Real-world Views on Parts, Service, and Operations
Fleet Maintenance - 49
Fleet Maintenance - 50
Fleet Maintenance - Tools & Equipment
Fleet Maintenance - 52
Fleet Maintenance - Classifieds
Fleet Maintenance - Guest Editorial: Moisture in Trailer Brakes is Not Just a Nuisance
Fleet Maintenance - 55
Fleet Maintenance - 56
Fleet Maintenance - Hand & Specialty Tools Supplement
Fleet Maintenance - A2
Fleet Maintenance - Specialty Hand Tools: The Problem Solvers
Fleet Maintenance - A4
Fleet Maintenance - Time to Multitask
Fleet Maintenance - A6
Fleet Maintenance - Get a Hold on Hand Tool Safety
Fleet Maintenance - A8
Fleet Maintenance - Electric Vehicle Tool Set
Fleet Maintenance - Tool Review
Fleet Maintenance - A11
Fleet Maintenance - A12
Fleet Maintenance - Products
Fleet Maintenance - A14
Fleet Maintenance - A15
Fleet Maintenance - A16