Fleet Maintenance - 24

Real-world application
with vehicle diagnostics
Communication protocols not only allow for
standardized communication between vehicle
systems, they also provide standardized information about the vehicle's performance and diagnostics. Technicians must have a point of access in
order to obtain this vehicle information.
"Fleets will need to make sure they have the
correct diagnostic software and vehicle communications hardware to support all of the vehicles
in their fleet, as well as trained experienced
technicians," says Drew Technologies' Herron.
"Telematics systems can also help to streamline
the service and maintenance process."
Every vehicle - whether passenger vehicle or
commercial vehicle - has a port, typically located on the driver's side under the dash or door
frame, to access a vehicle's computer systems.
Technicians connect a separate diagnostic tool
to the vehicle's port using a dongle or speciallydesigned adapter.
From the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s,
J1708 standard vehicles were outfitted with a
6-pin Deutsch connector to access the diagnostic port. With the advent of J1939 to account for
the increase in data, a 9-pin Deutsch connector
replaced the 6-pin design.
"The J1939 protocol, compared to the older
J1708, has brought higher speed of communication and a huge increase in the amount of data
available and transferable. This increase in the
amount of information available through a standardized protocol has significantly improved the
diagnostic operations and the amount of information that can be transferred to telematic devices,"
says TEXA USA's Mazzon.
In the last few years, the 9-pin adapter design
has been updated into two separate versions:
Type-I and Type-II. The Type-I 9-pin adapter is
limited to a 250 kbps (kilobytes per second) data
transfer rate and designed for vehicles manu-

Why standardized
communication on vehicles?
A list of benefits
NEXIQ Technologies' General Manager Tom Kotenko advises
there are a number of benefits to using standardized communication among and between vehicle systems and components:
* Seamless vehicle operation. Vehicle components and systems are able to work together
seamlessly while the vehicle is in operation.
* Fosters supplier competition. Standardization
allows all suppliers to compete for possible specification within a manufacturer's system or vehicle.
* Less wiring. "A decreased number of dedicated wires
is required for each function, and thus reduces the
size of the wiring harness," Kotenko explains. This
can decrease costs and vehicle weight and improve
vehicle reliability and serviceability, he adds.
* Data sharing capabilities. "Common sensor data, such
as vehicle speed, engine temperature, etc. are available
on the network, so data can be shared, thus eliminating the need for redundant sensors," Kotenko says.

24 Fleet Maintenance | May 2019

factured before 2016. The Type-II 9-pin adapter
provides up to a 500 kbps data transfer rate and
works on 2016 and newer vehicles. Technicians
may know these more familiarly as the black
(Type-I) or green (Type-II) 9-pin adapters.
"Scan tools use these protocols to decipher the
information that is being transmitted by the different ECMs," says Cojali's Gattamorta. "In this matter,
each manufacturer will access the data transmitted by their system, decode it, and exhibit it on the
computer in order to assist [the technician]. When
you have multi-system scan tools, such as Jaltest
Diagnostics, they are capable of reading all of the
systems at the same time in order to identify what
systems are present and what is the situation with
each one of these systems."

Standardized versus proprietary
communication protocols
With a common language, it may seem fairly
straightforward for maintenance shops to access
and interpret a vehicle's diagnostic information.
This is not entirely the case.
Standardized protocols help to make communication among vehicle systems universal. But vehicle manufacturers have created, and will continue
to maintain, their own proprietary communication unique to specific vehicle makes.
"Standardized fault codes only provide a
single layer of information, lacking the proprietary diagnostic information that is incisive
and helps the user determine the root cause of
a problem," says Noregon's Covington. "To share
an example, two engines could produce the same
fault, but the associated diagnostic data, such
as severity and fault tree information, can vary
greatly between the two."
This means fleets that service multiple vehicle
makes must invest in multiple OE scan tools, or
attempt to find an aftermarket scan tool with OE
diagnostic information for multiple makes.

ยป Every vehicle has a port, typically located
on the driver's side under the dash or door
frame, to access a vehicle's computer
systems. Technicians connect a separate
diagnostic tool to the vehicle's port using
a dongle or specially-designed adapter.
Photo courtesy of TEXA USA

"The collection of data and
the analysis of that data over
time is a key factor in predictive
maintenance and prognostics.
To truly understand and improve
the accuracy and efficiency of the
repair, the fleet or OE would be
required to follow through with
the full repair. Understanding
the full repair and what the
technician encountered during
the repair must come first; then,
and only then, can the process
be streamlined and improved."
-Tom Kotenko, General Manager,
NEXIQ Technologies

"If everyone used standardized faults, it would
significantly reduce the cost of developing scan
tools," says Tom Kotenko, general manager, NEXIQ
Technologies. "The challenge is that some OEs
require proprietary faults and sensor information
to troubleshoot faults using their specific diagnostic information."



Fleet Maintenance

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Fleet Maintenance

Uptime - Are You Communicating with Employees Effectively?
Trends in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils
Vehicles - Keys to Consistent Liftgate Performance
In the Bay - How Standardized Vehicle Communication Protocols Impact Diagnostics and Vehicle Operation
Shop Operations - Considerations for Mobile Device Usage in the Shop
Training - Where are all the Students Going?
Management - Why the Recent Airline Accidents Should be Concerning
Fleet Parts & Components
Tools & Equipment
Classifieds
Guest Editorial - How Much Do You Spend on DPF Maintenance?
Fleet Maintenance - 1
Fleet Maintenance - 2
Fleet Maintenance - 3
Fleet Maintenance - 4
Fleet Maintenance - 5
Fleet Maintenance - 6
Fleet Maintenance - 7
Fleet Maintenance - Uptime - Are You Communicating with Employees Effectively?
Fleet Maintenance - 9
Fleet Maintenance - Trends in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils
Fleet Maintenance - 11
Fleet Maintenance - 12
Fleet Maintenance - 13
Fleet Maintenance - 14
Fleet Maintenance - 15
Fleet Maintenance - 16
Fleet Maintenance - 17
Fleet Maintenance - Vehicles - Keys to Consistent Liftgate Performance
Fleet Maintenance - 19
Fleet Maintenance - 20
Fleet Maintenance - 21
Fleet Maintenance - In the Bay - How Standardized Vehicle Communication Protocols Impact Diagnostics and Vehicle Operation
Fleet Maintenance - 23
Fleet Maintenance - 24
Fleet Maintenance - 25
Fleet Maintenance - 26
Fleet Maintenance - 27
Fleet Maintenance - Shop Operations - Considerations for Mobile Device Usage in the Shop
Fleet Maintenance - 29
Fleet Maintenance - 30
Fleet Maintenance - 31
Fleet Maintenance - 32
Fleet Maintenance - 33
Fleet Maintenance - Training - Where are all the Students Going?
Fleet Maintenance - 35
Fleet Maintenance - Management - Why the Recent Airline Accidents Should be Concerning
Fleet Maintenance - Fleet Parts & Components
Fleet Maintenance - 38
Fleet Maintenance - 39
Fleet Maintenance - 40
Fleet Maintenance - Tools & Equipment
Fleet Maintenance - 42
Fleet Maintenance - 43
Fleet Maintenance - 44
Fleet Maintenance - Classifieds
Fleet Maintenance - Guest Editorial - How Much Do You Spend on DPF Maintenance?
Fleet Maintenance - 47
Fleet Maintenance - 48
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