September-October 2022 - 26

Zero-Emission Bus Fleets
batteries on board the bus. This
approach is often compared to
talking on a mobile phone with
the charger connected: the batteries
do not die as quickly, since
the battery is being recharged
as the phone is used. The same
happens with the battery dominant
fuel cell bus design, giving
the bus greater range than BEBs.
Some FCEBs are now capable of
achieving more than 300 miles in
daily operating range.
GLF Media/Shutterstock.com
graph and inductive.
Agencies have come to prioritize
integrating BEBs into service
because these vehicles provide
lower operating and maintenance
costs, while also meeting
the federal, state and local requirements
for zero emissions
A primary objective is to identify the operational
risk factors transit agencies may face and what
mitigation measure might be able to address
service interruption risks, so bus operations
and infrastructure modifications will be more
resilient to disruption from outside events.
density each year for the next decade.
For each project, develop a
charging infrastructure design
and electrical load analysis for a
bus facility based on these projected
improvements in battery
storage energy densities.
When developing a master fleet
zero-emission implementation
plan, agencies should account for
" forward and backward compatibility "
- using charging stations
that are compatible with older
technology, current standards
and the more compact and efficient
models expected in the future.
and sustainability.
In 2018, 300 BEBs were used
throughout the country. But the
FTA's Low- or No-Emissions
Grant program (or Lo-No) recently
awarded funding to 52 projects
across 41 states that will greatly
expand that number. Additionally,
continuous advancements in
battery technology are expected
to introduce more cost-effective
choices for operators. The industry
could see at least a five percent
increase in batteries' energy
Advancements in
Fuel Cell Technology
Fuel Cell Electric Buses (FCEB) are
another zero-emissions solution
that transit agencies across the
United States are implementing.
Hyundai and Toyota have both
initiated construction of fuel cell
production facilities here in the
United States. This provides a
more robust local supply chain and
increasingly competitive pricing.
Fuel cell buses continue to
advance in design with the latest
configurations being the battery
dominant fuel cell bus, where
the fuel cell is sized to recharge
26 | Mass Transit | MassTransitmag.com | SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2022
Powering the
Future: Micro-Grids
and Resilience
With the expansion of solar, wind
and energy storage options, the
adoption of microgrid technology
to support BEB deployments
is becoming more viable. Energy
sources available to integrate
into an on-site power generation/
emergency backup microgrid
include solar photovoltaic, wind
turbines, on-site battery storage,
fuel cells, conventional turbines,
micro-turbines and geo-thermal
energy sources. Integration of
on-site generated power not only
offers the local bus agency the
potential for reduced operating
costs and improved resilience, but
it also can have significant effects
(both positive and negative) on the
local utility electrical providers'
service and rates and the ability
of transit providers to continue
using their buses as emergency
support vehicles.
In order to determine the
benefit of the installation of a
microgrid, either connected to
a grid or autonomous, a number
of key factors require evaluation.
A primary objective is to identify
the operational risk factors transit
agencies may face and what mitigation
measure might be able
to address service interruption
risks, so bus operations and infrastructure
modifications will be
more resilient to disruption from
outside events. Another objective
is to provide supplemental power
during high-demand periods,
http://www.MassTransitmag.com

September-October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of September-October 2022

Editor’s Notebook
People & Places
Employee Initiative Drives Growth and Success at C-TRAN
Paving the Road for Zero-Emission Bus Fleets
Rail Trespassing Prevention: Cameras Provide Unblinking Eye
Achieving Equitable Mobility
Open for All: The Modular Route to Contactless Open Loop Fare Payments
Innovating to Address Rising Passenger Expectations
Products
September-October 2022 - 1
September-October 2022 - 2
September-October 2022 - 3
September-October 2022 - 4
September-October 2022 - 5
September-October 2022 - Editor’s Notebook
September-October 2022 - 7
September-October 2022 - People & Places
September-October 2022 - 9
September-October 2022 - 10
September-October 2022 - 11
September-October 2022 - 12
September-October 2022 - 13
September-October 2022 - Employee Initiative Drives Growth and Success at C-TRAN
September-October 2022 - 15
September-October 2022 - 16
September-October 2022 - 17
September-October 2022 - 18
September-October 2022 - 19
September-October 2022 - 20
September-October 2022 - 21
September-October 2022 - Paving the Road for Zero-Emission Bus Fleets
September-October 2022 - 23
September-October 2022 - 24
September-October 2022 - 25
September-October 2022 - 26
September-October 2022 - 27
September-October 2022 - 28
September-October 2022 - 29
September-October 2022 - Rail Trespassing Prevention: Cameras Provide Unblinking Eye
September-October 2022 - 31
September-October 2022 - 32
September-October 2022 - 33
September-October 2022 - 34
September-October 2022 - 35
September-October 2022 - Achieving Equitable Mobility
September-October 2022 - 37
September-October 2022 - 38
September-October 2022 - 39
September-October 2022 - Open for All: The Modular Route to Contactless Open Loop Fare Payments
September-October 2022 - 41
September-October 2022 - 42
September-October 2022 - 43
September-October 2022 - 44
September-October 2022 - 45
September-October 2022 - Innovating to Address Rising Passenger Expectations
September-October 2022 - 47
September-October 2022 - Products
September-October 2022 - 49
September-October 2022 - 50
September-October 2022 - 51
September-October 2022 - 52
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