June 2024 - 27

BIOLOGICALS
by the bacteria during fermentation. The metabolites
physically disrupt cell membranes of actively growing
pathogens, causing the cells to collapse. A contrasting
mode of action is seen with the saprophytic fungus
Ulocladium oudemansii (BotryStop). It colonizes dead,
damaged and senescing plant tissues, aggressively outcompeting
Botrytis for these resources and prevents the
disease from establishing
in the crop.
Biochemical
biofungicides include
botanical extracts, such
as those derived from
giant knotweed (Regalia),
which induce plant
resistance. When applied
to plants, these stimulate
in-plant production
of compounds that
inhibit plant pathogens.
Potassium bicarbonatebased
biofungicides
(e.g., MilStop SP) have a
physical mode of action,
desiccating spores and
actively growing mycelia
of fungi like powdery
mildew and Botrytis on
plant surfaces.
Understanding how
and where different
Macroorganisms include insects, mites and nematodes.
They are available as eggs, larvae, pupae, adults or
infective juveniles (nematodes), depending on the
beneficial organism. Just like any management strategy,
macroorganisms need to be used in an integrated
program with other macroorganisms, bioinsecticides
and/or synthetic insecticides.
Since pesticides
are designed to kill,
it is important to
understand biopesticide
and macroorganism
compatibility. This can be
complex, but there are
several useful websites
and other resources that
can help.
Let's consider how to
put a program together,
using Western flower
thrips as an example. Start
clean, by dipping incoming
rooted and unrooted
cuttings. Dips kill insects
and mites on propagative
material and can reduce
pesticide residues.
Amblyseius cucumeris
Green peach aphid killed by an infection of the entomopathogenic
fungus Beauveria bassiana. Photo courtesy of Eric Clifton, BioWorks.
biofungicides work is important to ensure selection of
the right product for disease control. Knowing the mode
of action gives you the knowledge on the how, when
and where to apply and is critical to successful disease
management. And last, when using biofungicides within a
production system, consider how they interact with other
biological and chemical inputs to ensure compatibility of
all components.
BIOINSECTICIDES AND MACROORGANISMS
Bioinsecticides are biological substances that manage
arthropod pests. Common microbial insecticides include
products containing the fungi Beauveria, Cordyceps or
Metarhizium, living bacterial agents such as Bacillus
thuringiensis or heat-killed organisms such as Burkholderia.
Biochemical bioinsecticides include active ingredients
such as azadirachtin, botanical essence/oils such as
rosemary and non-specific mechanical disruptors such as
diatomaceous earth (abrasion) or horticulture mineral oils
(suffocation). Most work on contact so it is important to
get good coverage.
(predatory mite)
consumes freshly
hatched thrips and their
introduction at propagation controls population growth.
However, this mite only feeds on the young larvae so it is
important to target other life stages (e.g., thrips pupae)
with soil predators such as Dalotia coriaria (rove beetle),
Stratiolaelaps scimitus (predatory soil mite) and Steinernema
feltiae (beneficial nematode). Finally, the generalist predator,
Orius insidiosus (minute pirate bug), will consume adult and
larval thrips, as well as other pest organisms.
The bioprogram is complemented by periodic
applications of biopesticides that are compatible with
these predators. Selective use of synthetic insecticides
may be required at times of year when pest populations
grow rapidly or can be applied prior to shipping to clean up
plants if necessary. Ideally, products should be compatible
with macroorganisms and risks can be further reduced
through strategic timing or placement of sprays.
Mark Freeman is the biological program manager of applied
technology, Michael Brownbridge is the biological program
manager of disease control and Julie Graesch is biological
program manager of insect control for BioWorks.
GREENHOUSE PRODUCT NEWS 27

June 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of June 2024

Table of Contents
Editor's Report | Labor updates
Legislation | Tackling ag labor
Management | All-in-one installation
Labor | Labor survey report
Labor | New H-2A worker protections will start this year
CAST 2024 | CAST crazes of 2024
Pest & Disease Management | Start clean, stay clean
Biologicals | Plant health and biologicals
Dr. Bugs | Biological control agent of Western flower thrips
Forty Under 40 Perspectives | Remote Sales success
Culture Report | Sparkling new Princettia varieties
Duets | Plant pathology perspective from floriculture royalty
AmericanHort | Dive deeper and gain an edge
Product Marketplace
Industry News
Classifieds/Ad Index
June 2024 - 1
June 2024 - 2
June 2024 - Table of Contents
June 2024 - Editor's Report | Labor updates
June 2024 - 5
June 2024 - 6
June 2024 - 7
June 2024 - Legislation | Tackling ag labor
June 2024 - 9
June 2024 - Management | All-in-one installation
June 2024 - 11
June 2024 - 12
June 2024 - 13
June 2024 - Labor | Labor survey report
June 2024 - 15
June 2024 - Labor | New H-2A worker protections will start this year
June 2024 - 17
June 2024 - CAST 2024 | CAST crazes of 2024
June 2024 - 19
June 2024 - 20
June 2024 - 21
June 2024 - 22
June 2024 - 23
June 2024 - Pest & Disease Management | Start clean, stay clean
June 2024 - 25
June 2024 - Biologicals | Plant health and biologicals
June 2024 - 27
June 2024 - 28
June 2024 - 29
June 2024 - Dr. Bugs | Biological control agent of Western flower thrips
June 2024 - 31
June 2024 - Forty Under 40 Perspectives | Remote Sales success
June 2024 - 33
June 2024 - Culture Report | Sparkling new Princettia varieties
June 2024 - 35
June 2024 - 36
June 2024 - 37
June 2024 - Duets | Plant pathology perspective from floriculture royalty
June 2024 - 39
June 2024 - 40
June 2024 - 41
June 2024 - AmericanHort | Dive deeper and gain an edge
June 2024 - 43
June 2024 - Product Marketplace
June 2024 - 45
June 2024 - 46
June 2024 - 47
June 2024 - Industry News
June 2024 - 49
June 2024 - Classifieds/Ad Index
June 2024 - 51
June 2024 - 52
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