March/April 2023 - 26

Disease management in almond
in tight budget year
In a tight budget year, getting the best results, affordably,
is vital to delivering the crop this year and next. The
possibility of increased disease pressure this year (2023 is
off to a wet start) compared to the last three years makes
this even more important.
The following are some considerations going into the 2023
crop year.
Overall strategy: Preventative treatment (e.g. spraying
before rain or dew) with the right fungicide(s) should give
better disease control compared to spraying after infection
once symptoms appear. Why? 1) Better spray coverage is
possible early in the season (less canopy interference with
spray movement), and 2) Disease pressure is low, and control
should be easier. Infection chances are often greater earlier
in the season when more rain falls, on average, than later in
the season. *
Brown rot: At least one, carefully applied, every-row spray
at 30% to 50% bloom if there is no to very little rain during
bloom. Two sprays are recommended if it is a wet bloom,
one at " pink " (not dormant bud swell) and one at full bloom.
Green fruit rot: In a wet, cool bloom, target green fruit
rot with full bloom fungicide spray. FRAC 3 fungicides (Tilt,
Indar, Elite and generics) are excellent brown rot fungicides
but largely ineffective on green fruit rot. There are many
effective fungicides for green fruit rot (FRAC 2, 7, 9).
If bloom is warm (60ᵒ F plus) and wet, starting at pink
bud, include a fungicide with good anthracnose activity
(for example, FRAC 3 materials) in the tank. The good news
is that most fungicides used for brown rot (except FRAC 9
materials) have good efficacy on anthracnose.
Shot hole: This is a significant concern from full bloom
through two weeks after petal fall. FRAC 3 fungicides give
only " moderate and variable " control of this disease that
can cause nut drop in cool springs when heavy infections
spread to nuts with rain. Many other fungicides deliver good
control when applied ahead of rain once leaf infections
begin sporulating.
Once petal fall occurs, keep an eye on the weather and
consult with a pest control advisor regarding materials and
timings. Refer to the " Fungicide Timing and Efficacy " table
for key disease control timings.
Severe infections producing early defoliation (scab,
rust, alternaria) can reduce yield next year (2024) as flower
numbers/nut set can be dramatically reduced.
Careful sprayer calibration/set up is important for good
pest control. Spray must reach all parts of the canopy to
deliver effective disease control. Aim and select nozzles so
that at least two-thirds of spray volume goes out of the top
half of the open nozzles. Check with water sensitive paper to
confirm coverage.
Final thought: Staying ahead of a problem is generally
better than playing catch up!
* When spraying, once high levels of the disease are
present, the University of California recommends not using
single-site materials or pre-mixtures of single-site materials.
Broad spectrum products (sulfur, captan, ziram, etc.) are
recommended when allowed by the label.
- Franz Niederholzer, farm advisor, University of California
Cooperative Extension; Sudan Gyawaly, integrated pest
management advisor, University of California Cooperative
Pistachio industry contributes
$6.4 billion to California economy
Source: American Pistachio Growers
With every new acre of pistachios, California reaps a
wellspring of economic rewards totaling more than $6.4
billion in the Golden State, according to a new economic
study commissioned by American Pistachio Growers.
The study was released Feb. 27 - the opening day of APG's
2023 Industry Annual Conference - and has quantified
the benefits in terms of industry spending for goods and
services, jobs created, labor income and contributions from
indirect business taxes.
The study, by Dennis H. Tootelian of the Tootelian Co.
of Sacramento, underscores the growing importance of
pistachios to the state's economy. Data were also analyzed
for Arizona and New Mexico.
Tootelian's number crunching reveals that the economic
impact of California pistachio grower and processor
spending on farming operations totaled nearly $3.5 billion
annually, or the equivalent of more than $9.5 million per
day in 2022. Total economic output, the best measure of
economic activity, was calculated by Tootelian at more than
$6.4 billion, an average of more than $17.6 million every day,
impacting an array of sectors from real estate, professional
services, construction, insurance and retailing.
" With every economic study of the industry, the numbers
keep getting more and more impressive, " Tootelian said.
" Every new pistachio seedling planted in our state's soil
turns the key of a powerful economic engine that benefits all
Californians, no matter where they live. "

March/April 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of March/April 2023

March/April 2023 - 1
March/April 2023 - 2
March/April 2023 - 3
March/April 2023 - 4
March/April 2023 - 5
March/April 2023 - 6
March/April 2023 - 7
March/April 2023 - 8
March/April 2023 - 9
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March/April 2023 - 11
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