Central PA Medicine Fall 2020 - 13

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Fast forward to today's medical education.
A large percentage of medical schools have
moved to an organ system based curriculum in which topics such as cardiology,
gastroenterology, and endocrinology are
taught in blocks through the first two years
of medical school. Simultaneously, courses
such as humanities, foundations of patient
care, and the science of health systems
run longitudinally through that time. The
basic sciences of anatomy, pharmacology,
histology, and embryology are integrated
into each organ block and have been largely
dismantled as standalone courses.

correlates are presented in a similar fashion
to reinforce the students' new skills. The
faculty, usually composed of radiologists and
organ specific clinical specialists, facilitate
learning while walking around the room
answering questions that arise, helping the
students think through the questions, and
most importantly giving the students a
clinician's perspective on the question at hand.

sectional imaging modalities are available
24 hours a day, and the ability to review
diagnostic images on devices anywhere in
the hospital can prevent delays in patient
care. It is logical, then, that a medical
student or resident who is comfortable
opening and evaluating an imaging study
while caring for a critically ill patient will
be in a better position to optimize that
patient's
outcome. The ability to make a
The program has been well received,
determination
that something is abnormal
earning exceptional evaluation scores year
on
a
radiology
study
can prevent untoward
after year. First and foremost, the use of
events
from
occurring.
There is anecdotal
imaging has enhanced the students' knowlevidence
that
this
is
indeed
the case. Since
edge of clinical anatomy. But the benefits of
implementing
the
new
anatomy
curriculum,
The Penn State University College of this program, some only realized once the
Penn
State
students
have
reported
that their
Medicine is among those schools utilizing course was implemented, reach further into
skills
in
image
manipulation
and
analysis
this 'new' medical school curriculum. As clinical medicine than originally expected.
are
better
than
those
of
students
visiting
part of this modern approach to medical It turns out that teaching anatomy through
from
other
institutions.
education, a greater emphasis has been imaging also teaches imaging through
placed on the use of medical imaging to anatomy. The early exposure to two- and
Teaching anatomy through imaging also
teach anatomy. This approach to teaching three-dimensional images of the body give allows students to begin to learn about the
anatomy through imaging was developed the students a head start in 'seeing' the appropriate use of imaging. Because students
and implemented at Penn State over the anatomy in three-dimensions. Those students explore anatomy with different modalities,
last five to ten years. Currently, Penn State who are not natural at this skill are given they learn to appreciate that certain radiology
medical students spend approximately 50% the advantage of two additional years in studies demonstrate anatomy and function
of their allotted anatomy class time in each looking at images before they begin their better than others. Students also learn to
organ block dissecting cadavers and 50% third year clinical rotations. In addition, appreciate the limitations of imaging. For
learning anatomy through imaging.
the use of simulation for 'scrolling' and example, medical students readily appreciate
'scout
lines' gives the student a head start how the absence of thin slices on a CT scan
On a typical anatomy day, half of the class
in
knowing
how to manipulate images for limits their ability to see smaller structures.
gathers in the dissection lab and the other
optimal
clinical
use. This skill cannot be Safety in imaging is paramount. Through
half meets in a lecture hall. The students
underestimated.
The odds are roughly 9:1 the imaging exercises the students also learn
are organized into groups of 4-5 that work
that
a
medical
student
will pursue a career in the appropriate and safe use of contrast
together during both dissection lab and ima
non-surgical
vs
surgical
specialty. As such, materials and begin to appreciate the risks
aging sessions. The imaging class begins with
the
majority
of
physicians
will never have of ionizing radiation.
a short framing lecture on the subject of the
their
hands
inside
of
a
human
body after
day. Then the students are provided imaging
From a systems perspective, the students
medical
school.
However,
a
high
percentage
anatomy exercises. The exercises, presented
are able to visualize how radiology fits into
on PowerPoint, are designed to simulate the of emergency room and hospitalized patients the clinical team and how to best utilize
real time evaluation of radiographs, CT, MRI, have some sort of imaging performed during the radiologist as a consultant. The new
ultrasound and angiography. Simulation of their stay and there is a continued trend imaging anatomy curriculum also exposes
cross sectional anatomy involves presenting toward increased utilization of diagnostic the undecided student to a potential career
stacked axial, coronal and sagittal CT or imaging across all medical specialties. As as a radiologist, often much earlier than
other cross sectional modality images that such, the overwhelming majority of clinicians would have traditionally occurred. Finally,
students 'scroll' through while scout images regularly use imaging to aid in the diagnosis, and importantly, the new curriculum allows
and scout lines are presented for anatomic treatment and follow-up of their patients. students to observe how the members of
localization. The slides are embedded Most physicians rely on radiology to assess the clinical team work together in patient
with directions for the students to identify their patients' internal anatomy.
care. Working with and observing the diflabeled structures, appreciate and explain
Today's hospital environment is fast paced ferent perspectives of the faculty facilitators
anatomic relationships to their groupmates, and there are more diagnosis and treatment demonstrates teamwork.
and challenge their newfound knowledge options than ever before. Higher patient volof organ block specific material to explain umes can lead to less time to care for patients.
abnormal anatomy and pathology. Clinical Both radiographic and sophisticated cross
Central PA Medicine Fall 2020 13


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Central PA Medicine Fall 2020

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https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMWinter2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMFall2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMSummer2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMSpring2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMWinter2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMFall19
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMSummer19
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMSpring19
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMWinter19
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMFall18
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/Summer2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMSpring18
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CPMWinter18
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/Fall2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CentralPAMedicine_Summer17
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CentralPAMedicine_Spring17
https://www.nxtbook.com/hoffmann/CPAMed/CentralPAMedicine_Feb2017
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com