Geosynthetics June/July 2020 - 43

Holes and wrinkles may be modeled as
described by Rowe (1998).
This article focuses on holes and
wrinkles that are either circular or have
dimensions such that they can be reasonably approximated as circular. In the
case where there is a crack in a wrinkle,
the flow will be controlled by the capacity for flow through the crack (Giroud
and Bonaparte 1989), particularly in the
zone where there is no intimate contact
between GM and GCL (Rowe 1998).
Results in this study were obtained for a
round hole size of 0.08 inch (2 mm) and
were compared with baseline estimates
from Forcheimer (1930), Rowe (1998)
and Giroud and Bonaparte (1989).

Lid

Rubber bladder

Flange

GM
GCL

Base

FIGURE 1 Experimental
pressure vessel with constant
head hydraulic control system

Test apparatus
and equipment
The test apparatus used for this investigation is shown schematically in Figure
1. It consists of a pressure vessel rated up
to 100 psi (690 kPa), which can accept
a GM test specimen of approximately 2
feet (0.6 m) in diameter that is subsequently bolted between flanges. Suitable
pressure pumps, valves, regulators and
gauges are used for the purposes of control and operation.
There is a lower containment vessel
that contains the subgrade soil. If a geotextile protection layer is to be used, it
should be located directly on top of the
soil or beneath a GCL in the case of a
composite liner. In addition, there is an
upper assembly consisting of a domed
steel cover with pressure gauge, air bleed
valve, water control valve and water intake.
It should be clearly stated that the vessel
has three main parts: from the bottom up,
the base which contains the subgrade soil
and composite liner system, the central

FIGURE 2 Control panel system
attached to pressure vessel.

Out flow base

Normal pressure lid

In flow flange

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Geosynthetics June/July 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Geosynthetics June/July 2020

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