Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 17

relative stiffness of column to subsoil.
Chen et al. (2008) and Filz et al. (2019)
considered the distribution of the downdrag
force in the subsoil in their models.
Unified practical solution
To address the issue related to different
soil arching models developed based on
different soil arching stages, Han (2021)
proposed a unified solution (Figure 5)
by adopting the simplified GRC and the
concept of the interaction diagram for
soil arching, geosynthetic reinforcement
and subsoil resistance proposed by Ellis
and Aslam (2009). To plot all the stress
values on the same figure, both the soil
arching ratio and the stress reduction
ratio are referred to as the normalized
stress. Figure 5 shows that the simplified
GRC starts from the initial point
with a normalized stress at 1.0 (i.e., no
arching) corresponding to the normalized
displacement equal to 0 (i.e., zero
displacement). With an increase of the
displacement, the normalized stress
decreases to the minimum value, which
can be estimated by the concentric arch
model. Han et al. (2017) found that the
normalized displacement corresponding
to the minimum value is approximately
1.5% to 5%. After the minimum value,
the normalized stress increases with the
normalized displacement up to the ultimate
value, which can be estimated by
the adapted Terzaghi method. Han et al.
In addition to soil
arching, design of
GRCS embankments
must determine
the required
maximum tension
in the geosynthetic
according to
the tensioned
membrane effect.
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17
Benefits
* No need for water above
the geomembrane
* Consistent conduction of
electricity beneath the
entire lined surface
* No need for special
welding techniques
* Can be used under almost
any type of geomembrane
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Geosynthetics August/September 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Geosynthetics August/September 2021

Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - Cover1
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - Cover2
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 1
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 2
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 3
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 4
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 5
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 6
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 7
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 8
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Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - 44
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - Cover3
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - Cover4
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - GeoNashville Attendee Brochure 1
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - GeoNashville Attendee Brochure 2
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - GeoNashville Attendee Brochure 3
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - GeoNashville Attendee Brochure 4
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - GeoNashville Attendee Brochure 5
Geosynthetics August/September 2021 - GeoNashville Attendee Brochure 6
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