Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 30

Energy industries using HDPE liners for flowback water evaporation/recycling ponds
of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources
Conservation Service (NRCS) map, the
average annual precipitation is 17.1 inches
(43.5 cm). The National Weather Service
developed the free water surface evaporation
rate, the annual amount expected
to evaporate from the disposal ponds,
which is 45 inches (114.3 cm) per year.
This evaporation data is based on a water
containment that is not lined with white
or black HDPE geomembranes.
Danish Flats, Cisco, Utah
The project is in an arid region of eastern
Utah in the area known as Danish Flats,
which is at 4,610 feet (1,405 m) above
mean sea level.
The site is in the Mancos Shale
Formation lowland area including the
Greater Cisco area. The Mancos Shale
Formation is the predominant outcrop
in this area (Hunt 1996).
According to the USDA NRCS map,
the average annual precipitation is 6
inches (15.2 cm). As in Wyoming, the
National Weather Service developed the
free water surface evaporation rate, which
is 50 inches (127 cm) per year. This evaporation
data is based on a water containment
that is not lined with white or black
HDPE geomembranes.
PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS
DANISH FLATS POND LINER
ORIGINAL OWNER
Danish Flats Environmental Services
LOCATION
Cisco, Utah
CONTRACTOR
Kelly Trucking and Colorado
Lining International Inc.
DESIGN ENGINEER
Neil C. Nowak, P.E., SCS Engineers
GEOSYNTHETICS PRODUCT
60-mil (1.5-mm) textured HDPE
GEOSYNTHETICS MANUFACTURER
AGRU America
30
Geosynthetics | October November 2021
XRI Blue Buchanan Pond,
Midland, Texas
The project is in an arid region of west
Texas in the area known as the Permian
Basin, which is at 2,690 feet (820 m)
above mean sea level. The site is in
Midland County 9.9 miles (16 km) south
of Midland.
According to the USDA NRCS map,
the average annual precipitation ranges
between 12 and 15 inches (30.5 and 38.1
cm). The free water surface evaporation
rate is 58 inches (147.3 cm) per year. This
evaporation data is based on a water containment
that is not lined with white or
black HDPE geomembranes.
Project details
Purpose
The main purpose of the projects is to evaporate
the production water and flowback
water as quickly as possible, or to store
and recycle the water while maintaining
environmental controls and containment.
Several water-disposal options exist,
including reinjection wells, fracking injection,
treatment for surface discharge, recycling
for reuse in the development of oil/
gas and evaporation. The evaporation
technology was chosen for some of these
projects due to the ideal site conditions for
evaporation, including low precipitation,
windy conditions, high ambient temperatures
and plenty of sun. Other projects are
designed to store the water for reuse and,
therefore, use white color liners.
Selection of technology
While several lining technologies exist
and are allowed by the regulatory agencies,
the HDPE liner was chosen for the
top layer for several reasons, including
durability, resistance to ultraviolet (UV)
degradation, chemical resistance, black
color and ease of construction.
The addition of the proper amount
of high-quality carbon black to the geomembrane
during manufacturing is universally
accepted as being resistant to
significant deterioration caused by weathering.
In addition to high-quality carbon
black, highly effective chemical UV stabilizers
further extend the life of the liner.
These additives absorb incident radiation
and terminate free radical production,
thus protecting the HDPE geomembrane
against thermal degradation and possible
chemical reactions with surrounding
materials. Other factors that affect
the potential UV resistance of a material
include average density, density range or
dispersion, chemical stabilizer system,
catalyst type and amount of residue, copolymer
type, combined chemical exposures,
and failure criteria (GSE 2003).

Geosynthetics October/November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Geosynthetics October/November 2021

Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover1
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover2
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 1
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 2
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 3
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 4
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 5
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 6
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 7
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 8
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 9
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 10
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 11
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 12
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 14
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 16
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 17
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 18
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 19
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 20
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 21
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 22
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 23
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 24
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 25
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 26
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 28
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 30
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 35
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 40
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 41
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 44
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover3
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover4
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