Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 31

Implementation
Production water and flowback water are
delivered to the sites via tanker trucks
and via pipelines from well sites located
within the geographic area local to each
site; the delivery method used depends
on transportation costs and disposal fees
when compared to other alternatives for
water disposal in the area. The water is
off-loaded and sent through a treatment
process, such as separation equipment,
gun-barrel tanks or other state-of-the
art equipment.
The operation units include gun-barrel
tanks, a sludge pond and a series of 5.2acre
(2.1-ha) evaporation ponds. All the
structures are connected via gravity or
force-main fed via an underground piping
system. The Bluegrass Water facility process
is similar to the Danish Flats layout.
To increase evaporation with low
costs in mind, a " weep " system was added
at Danish Flats to allow water to flow and
fan out over the surface of the HDPE
liner that is above the waterline. This
system utilizes the exposed HDPE liner
to increase evaporation by using the heat
generated from the exposed HDPE liner
in combination with the increased surface
area of the water fanning out over the
liner (Figure 1 on pages 28-29).
The incoming water at the Danish
Flats and Bluegrass Water sites flows
through the gun-barrel tank systems and
the sludge pond before entering the evaporation
ponds. The pretreatment facilities
and the evaporation ponds have been
designed to follow the topography, allowing
for gravity flow throughout the system.
Volatile organic compound (VOC)
emissions from the separation equipment
and ancillary tankage are controlled to
maintain air quality.
The sludge ponds and storage/evaporation
ponds have an interior slope of 3
horizontal to 1 vertical, or 3:1, and a maximum
exterior slope of 2 to 1. The HDPE
geomembrane chosen has a textured
surface, which will increase the safety
characteristics of the facility by making
it easier to walk on, especially on the
interior slopes.
Surface water will not be allowed to
enter the ponds because the constructed
berms are several feet higher than the
surrounding ground surface, and diversion
and control ditches are used to direct
the run-on and runoff for minimizing the
impact of stormwater.
The leak detection system is between
the primary and secondary liners, and it is
inspected, and data is recorded, as required.
A summary of the inspections is reported
to the regulatory agencies as needed. Liquid
from the sump can be pumped back into
the pond. If the volume of the leak exceeds
certain thresholds, specific protocols for
repairing the liner are required.
The entire facility area at each site has
been fenced and gated to help prevent cattle
or other animals from entering. Since
the sludge ponds could have oily material
on the surface, netting has been used to
deter the entry of birds or other wildlife at
the Danish Flats and Bluegrass Water sites.
The volume of water able to be stored
for evaporation or storage in the ponds
is as follows:
* Bluegrass Water: Ponds 1-8 are 25
feet (7.62 m) water-holding depth
and nearly 1 million barrels (at 42
gallons [159 L] per barrel) each, for
a total capacity of 8 million barrels.
Enhanced evaporation with sprayers
were used to improve evaporation.
* Danish Flats: Ponds 1-8 are 12 feet
(3.66 m) of water-holding depth and
nearly 240,000 barrels each, for a
total capacity of 2 million barrels.
Ponds 9-13 are 22 feet (6.71 m) of
water-holding depth and nearly
632,000 barrels each, for a total
capacity of 3,160,000 barrels.
* XRI Buchanan: Pond 1 is 12 feet
(3.66 m) of water-holding depth for
a capacity of nearly 500,000 barrels.
The operation units
include gun-barrel tanks,
a sludge pond and a
series of 5.2-acre (2.1ha)
evaporation ponds.
All the structures are
connected via gravity
or force-main fed via
an underground piping
system. The Bluegrass
Water facility process
is similar to the Danish
Flats layout.
PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS
XRI BLUE BUCHANAN
POND LINER
OWNER
XRI Holdings LLC
LOCATION
Midland, Texas
CONTRACTOR
Mustang Extreme Environmental
DESIGN ENGINEER
Neil C. Nowak, P.E., SCS Engineers
GEOSYNTHETICS PRODUCTS
40-mil (1-mm) and 60-mil (1.5-mm)
smooth HDPE Black and White
GEOSYNTHETICS MANUFACTURER
Solmax
www.GeosyntheticsMagazine.com
31
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Geosynthetics October/November 2021

Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover1
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover2
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 1
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 2
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 3
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 4
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 5
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 6
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 7
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 8
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 11
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 12
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 14
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 15
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 16
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 17
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 19
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 20
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 21
Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 22
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 24
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 28
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 31
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 35
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - Cover3
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