Geosynthetics October/November 2021 - 33

experienced at the Bluegrass Water project
was also more than the pan evaporation
estimate based on ponds without
the HDPE liner effects, including the
increase in evaporation from the estimate
of 45 inches (114.3 cm) per year to nearly
55 inches (139.7 cm).
The evaporation rates at Bluegrass
Water have been enhanced with the use of
sprayers that assisted with the evaporation.
The durability and resistance to UV
degradation due to the proper amount
of carbon black in the geomembrane
and other factors as discussed are the
major reasons for the use of the HDPE
geomembrane liner as the top layer. The
increased evaporation rates due to the
black color of the HDPE has been a great
benefit and, in combination with the
" weep " system, has realized an increase
with the total evaporation at each facility.
The white liner at XRI Buchanan was
used to reduce evaporation relative to
the black liner. The surface temperature
of the white liner as compared to a black
liner can be 104˚F (40˚C) cooler (Solmax
2020) due to reflecting the sunlight, thus
reducing the ability of the water to heat
and, hence, reducing the water evaporation.
The quantitative reduction in the
amount of evaporation is not known.
Some of the liners were installed
during the summer months, and, due
to the expansion and contraction of the
liner with ambient air temperature gradients,
the anchor trenches were only
filled during the coolest part of the day
to reduce bridging.
An existing study was conducted
on an HDPE liner installed at a site in
Colorado after 20 years of service where
the liner was not buried and exposed to
weathering, UV light and cooling tower
blowdown water. The material was tested
for various properties and was found to
have no significant reduction in the primary
physical properties of the HDPE
(Ivy 2002).
www.GeosyntheticsMagazine.com
33
Acknowledgments
Thank you to Bluegrass Water and XRI
Buchanan, as well as to Mustang Extreme
and Raven/Colorado Lining Inc., which
provided installation expertise and constructed
the HDPE liners at the ponds infield.
All are performing exceptionally well
and without leaks due to construction.
References
GSE. (2003). " Technical note: HDPE, UV resistance for
GSE geomembranes. "
Hunt, G. L. (1996). Environmental handbook:
Environmental regulations for the oil and gas exploration
and production industry. Utah Division of Oil, Gas and
Mining, Department of Natural Resources.
Ivy, N. (2002). " HDPE geomembrane after 20 years of
service. " Geotechnical Fabric Report, June/July.
Solmax. (2020). White Prime Finish brochure. G
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Geosynthetics October/November 2021

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