Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 30

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GUEST VIEWPOINT

LED Lighting -
The Right Choice for Ports?
By Keith. W. Hall, PE, LC, Member of IES Port Terminal Lighting Committee
Hall Engineering Group, Inc.

L

ED lighting has been in the marketplace for around ten years and
now that it has a track record, is it
still the thing to do? This article
will discuss past technologies, some lesser
known advantages of LED lighting, and
where the industry is headed. Although
LEDs offer advantages for building
interior environments, this article generally focuses on LEDs in the exterior
port environment.

Background
Promoted as the next great thing,
LED lighting took the lighting industry by storm in the last half of the last
decade. Manufacturing costs and LED
light outputs started to become competitive with traditional lighting sources
(i.e., fluorescent, high pressure sodium
(HPS), and metal halide (MH)). For
ports, these traditional sources were
well established with significant capital costs and met the unique needs of
extreme ruggedness to the environment,
specifically, wind, rain, and salt exposure. However, the prospects for continued higher electricity and labor costs
drove the need for ports to explore other
lighting technologies, and LED lighting
immediately jumped to the forefront
of possibilities.
LEDs, like most solid-state electronics, change and develop at an astonishing
rate, and new products have been introduced into the marketplace continually.
Over the last decade, LEDs have nearly
caught up with the light output (lumens/
watt) of traditional fluorescent, HPS and
MH sources - particularly when considering delivered lumens/watt on the surface
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intended (such as on the ground or surface
to be lighted). LED technology, being
solid state, was inherently suited to 21st
century manufacturing processes and has
become the lighting source of choice.

Past Technologies Offer
Limited Choices
Generally, HPS and MH have been
the lamp source technologies of choice
for port exterior applications whether for
berths, uplands or structures. Both HPS
and MH are high-intensity-discharge
lamp (HID) technologies that date from
the 1950s and 1960s, and both provide
good efficiencies and relatively long life.
Issues with HPS are well known; its color
of light is often referred to as 'yellow'
because its dominant visible light is in
the yellow-red band of the wavelength
spectrum. MH is a 'whiter' light but typically does not possess the life span of HPS
and exhibits significant degradation in
light output as the lamp (light bulb) ages
(30 percent to 40 percent is not uncommon before end of life, which is typically 20,000-30,000 hours of operation).
Furthermore, both sources have limited
control and dimming capabilities. Today's
LEDs degrade less than 10 percent over
50,000 hours or longer.

LEDs Advantages Are
Well Known
LEDs are known for their energy
efficiencies, higher quality of light, and
longer life spans, but now they have a
track record of a decade and almost all
research and development by lighting
manufacturers have been focused around
LED technology. This means LED light

fixtures of 2017 are vastly improved over
LED light fixtures of only five years ago.
LEDs, and their corresponding electronic
drivers, have significantly improved as
knowledge, competition, market needs,
and manufacturing know how and experience have increased. LED light fixtures
are now available that can withstand
the harsh conditions often found in port
environments and have the light output that makes them viable options for
high mast lighting. Whether high mast,
parking areas or exterior building/structures, LED manufacturers are offering
better products with more choices than
ever before.

LED Advantages That Are
Less Well Known
Quality of lighting is often talked about
in general terms, but there are three
areas where LEDs offer ports significant
advancements over older technologies:
1) color of 'white' light; 2) precise aiming of light; and 3) controlling the light.
To simplify this discussion, we are limiting this article to 'white' light perceived
by humans as normal and comfortable
light. What is less known is a range of
'white' light measured in kelvins and
is typically between 2,700K (more red
and known as 'warm') to 6,000K (more
blue and known as 'cool'). LEDs naturally produce light in this bluer (cooler)
range. To get warmer, or more natural
(color corrected) light, phosphor is used to
coat the LEDs. Initially, to obtain higher
light output levels, LED fixtures minimized phosphor and the results were in
the cooler, blue range. Now that LEDs
are producing more light, manufacturers



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017

AAPA Headquarters
From the President’s Desk
Ports’ Power as Conveners
FAST Act Impact
Following Up on the Funding Trail
Infrastructure Coordination: Competing Globally, Acting Locally
A Digital Vision of Leadership: Using Technology to Improve the Supply Chain in Los Angeles
XXV Latin American Congress of Ports
Every American, Every Day is Impacted by Port Activities
LED Lighting – The Right Choice for Ports?
Index of Advertisers
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - into
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - bellyband1
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - bellyband2
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - cover1
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - cover2
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 3
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 4
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 5
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - AAPA Headquarters
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 7
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - From the President’s Desk
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 9
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - Ports’ Power as Conveners
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 11
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 12
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 13
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - FAST Act Impact
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 15
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 16
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - Following Up on the Funding Trail
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 18
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 19
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - Infrastructure Coordination: Competing Globally, Acting Locally
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 21
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 22
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 23
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - A Digital Vision of Leadership: Using Technology to Improve the Supply Chain in Los Angeles
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 25
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - XXV Latin American Congress of Ports
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 27
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - Every American, Every Day is Impacted by Port Activities
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 29
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - LED Lighting – The Right Choice for Ports?
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 31
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - Index of Advertisers
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 33
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 34
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - cover3
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - cover4
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - divider1
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - divider2
Seaports Magazine - Spring 2017 - 41
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