Seaports Magazine - Fall 2013 - (Page 38)

» GUEST VIEWPOINT New Rules for Marine Engines Reduce Port Emissions By Ezra Finkin Director for Policy and Outreach Diesel Technology Forum I t was considered a major achievement when the International Maritime Organization ratified the MARPOL agreement in 2008, paving the way for changes to the U.S. Emissions Control Area (ECA) to reduce emissions from large ocean going vessels and improve air quality in communities surrounding ports. Those rules limited the sulfur content of fuel and required vessel operators to deploy engine upgrades to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), an ozone forming compound. In 2007, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified 31 U.S. seaports located in non-attainment areas for particulate matter, or soot, and ozone, and the MARPOL agreement was seen as a necessary action to reduce these pollutants. While much attention has been placed on international agreements that reduce emissions from large ocean going vessels, other emissions regulations on marine engines and equipment are set to kick in soon that will contribute to improving air quality for communities surrounding ports. These rules cover harbor craft and some cargo handling equipment that make up roughly 20 percent of port emissions of particulate matter and NOx. As of January 1, 2014, new engines deployed in a wide spectrum of marine applications must meet the so-called Tier 4 final requirements. These rules pertain to newly built Category 1 and 2 diesel engines or those engines with up to a 30 liter per cylinder displacement and are found on smaller craft, ferries, tugboats, barges, other maritime workboats and auxiliary engines. Other Tier 4 rules cover some landside stationary engines used in cargo handling equipment, such as gantry cranes. Engine manufacturers will meet NO x reduction requirements through certain 38 AAPA SEAPORTS MAGAZINE catalytic and advanced engine technologies. One of the proven catalytic technologies deployed in on- and off-road equipment is selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which disperses a small amount of urea into the exhaust to transform NOx into water and raw nitrogen. Other proven technologies include Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) that reroutes some exhaust back into the engine with the benefit of lowering the combustion temperature to help reduce NO x. The deployment of these technologies in the wide spectrum of marine applications will have the potential to significantly reduce NOx emissions and improve ozone levels. The Tier 4 final rule builds on an earlier requirement to reduce particulate matter emissions. Engines manufactured after January 1 will exhibit “near zero” levels of particulate matter and NO x contributing to the air quality. These Tier 4 final engines will achieve a 90 percent reduction in particulate matter, or soot, and an 80 percent reduction in NO x compared to engines designed to meet Tier 2 requirements beginning in 2007. These impressive technologies could not come on line without the widespread availability of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel that has substantially reduced sulfur dioxide emissions from diesel engines across the U.S. in on- and off-road applications. New technology diesel engines are not new to ports. These diesel engines began transforming the air surrounding ports beginning in 2007 when the first “clean diesel” trucks rolled off assembly lines destined for port and other drayage operations. Two of the first ports to see the widespread introduction of new clean diesel drayage trucks – the ports of L.A. and Long Beach – recently announced that drayage truck emissions decreased by 90 percent since clean diesels entered service in the port. This clean diesel technology is deployed across the wide spectrum of goods movement, mass transit, construction, agriculture, mining and other applications. The energy density of diesel fuel, the widespread availability of fuel and the inherent efficiency of the diesel engine make diesel the powertrain of choice in heavy duty applications. With the advent of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel in 2006, new emissions control technologies came on line to significantly reduce criteria pollutants to near zero levels. In fact, many diesel engines manufactured today have nearly the same emissions profile as a comparable natural gas engine yet with a lower purchase price and maintenance costs. The benefit to seaports of new technology diesel engines doesn’t stop with its impressive “near zero” emissions accolades. It is a little known fact that diesel technology is one of the most export-intensive manufactured products. $46.2 billion worth of diesel engines, equipment, vehicles and fuel was exported from the U.S. transiting through a U.S. seaport. Diesel technology has an export-to-value ratio five times higher than the national average. In fact, one in four diesel engines manufactured in the U.S. is destined for overseas markets exported through a U.S. seaport. The largest diesel export by value is ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In 2012, the U.S. exported over 262 million barrels of diesel fuel. Ports depend on clean diesel to power equipment, move cargo and help the bottom line. ● Ezra Finkin serves as the Director for Policy and Outreach for the Diesel Technology Forum representing manufacturers of diesel engines, vehicles and equipment.

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Seaports Magazine - Fall 2013

AAPA Headquarters
From the President’s Desk
LNG Poised for Dramatic Growth
Harnessing Wind Power
XXII Latin American Ports Congress Welcomes the World
Energy Policies Taking Hold
Environmental Certifications Offer Tangible Benefits
A Good Neighbor
AAPA to Honor 26 Ports for Communications at 102nd Convention
New Rules for Marine Engines Reduce Port Emissions
Marine-Based Renewable Energy Creating Opportunities on a Global Scale
Curb Energy Costs to Boost Profits, Maintain Competitiveness
Considerations When Evaluating Alternative Power Sources from an Air Perspective
Halifax to Implement Shore Power for 2014 Cruise Season
Aruba Creates Port-Funded Mangrove Reforestation Project
Arica: Meeting the Challenges Presented by Innovation and the Environment
FPL to Build Next Generation Energy Center at Port Everglades
Index of Advertisers

Seaports Magazine - Fall 2013