Woodland - Summer 2020 - 15


successfully regenerate hardwood
forests. Control measures can
include several options. Competing
trees and shrubs can simply be
cut; however, this often results in
the plant re-sprouting. Successful
control is most often achieved using
herbicides labeled for brush control
in forests. Researchers have studied
different active ingredients, rates,
and time of year to develop safe and
effective application prescriptions
to control competing and invasive
plant problems. Certified applicators
are available to make herbicide
applications for woodland owners.
Deer browsing impacts forest
regeneration in several ways. When
deer densities exceed habitat carrying
capacity, deer impact the ability of
forests to regenerate desirable tree
species. Selective deer browsing
reduces seedling numbers, surviving
seedlings are smaller, and the species
composition is shifted to less preferred
species, i.e., species deer don't like
to eat. Unfortunately, desirable timber
species such as maple, oak, hickory,
and yellow poplar are high on the food
preference list and can be completely
browsed out of forest understories
when deer impact is high.
It is essential to control deer
populations to maintain a balance with
habitat conditions. Until that balance
is reached it may be necessary to
exclude deer from areas, using deer
exclusion fences, for years until
desired regeneration is above the
deer's reach. For
example, erecting
an eight-foot woven
wire fence around
a cutting unit may
be the best option
to control high
deer impact. In
addition to fencing,
landowners may
consider using the
Deer Management
Program or DMAP.
DMAP allows
landowners to
harvest additional

antlerless deer on their property during
regular hunting seasons.
Lastly, it is necessary to understand
the light requirements of desired
regeneration. Most desirable timber
species such as black cherry, white
ash, yellow poplar, hickory, and
black walnut are intolerant of shade,
meaning they grow best in full sunlight.
All oak species are intermediate in
shade tolerance; they grow well in
the middle ranges of light availability.
Sugar maple, basswood, and hemlock
are shade tolerant; they can compete
well in fully shaded conditions.
The tree species you are
managing for dictate the type of
regeneration harvests recommended.
When managing for shade intolerant
trees, species with high light
requirements, practices that let large
amounts of sunlight to the forest
floor are preferred. These practices
include clearcuts (ONLY if advance
regeneration is present or for species
like aspen that regenerate from root
sprouts), shelterwood harvests, and
seed tree cuts. Selectively harvesting
individual mature trees from the forest
canopy allows only small amounts
of light to reach the forest floor and
will likely result in the regeneration of
shade tolerant species.
C-D-L certainly involves
investments - planning, money,
and time. Failing to address all
three components, competing
vegetation, deer, and light, can lead to
inadequate desirable regeneration and
unsustainable conditions. In summary,
if competing vegetation is controlled,
deer impact is kept low, and the light
tolerances of the desired tree species
are taken into consideration, you will
likely be successful in establishing and
sustaining new forests.
For more on C-D-L practices,
see the Penn State Extension
Forest Science Fact Sheet entitled:
Regenerating Hardwood Forests:
Managing Competing Plants, Deer,
and Light. It can be found online
at: https://extension.psu.edu/

Summer 2020 * WOODLAND 15


Woodland - Summer 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Woodland - Summer 2020

Forests and Families
Forest Interactions
Forestry Amid a Pandemic
National Treasure: The Return of Longleaf
White Oak in the Buckeye State
Tools and Resources
Amazon Makes Major Investment in Family Forests
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Intro
Woodland - Summer 2020 - cover1
Woodland - Summer 2020 - cover2
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 3
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Overstory
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 5
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Forests and Families
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 7
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Forest Interactions
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 9
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 10
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 11
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 12
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 13
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 14
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 15
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 16
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 17
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 18
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 19
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Forestry Amid a Pandemic
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 21
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 22
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 23
Woodland - Summer 2020 - National Treasure: The Return of Longleaf
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 25
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 26
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 27
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 28
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 29
Woodland - Summer 2020 - White Oak in the Buckeye State
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 31
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 32
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 33
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 34
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 35
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Tools and Resources
Woodland - Summer 2020 - 37
Woodland - Summer 2020 - Amazon Makes Major Investment in Family Forests
Woodland - Summer 2020 - cover3
Woodland - Summer 2020 - cover4