Woodland - Winter 2020 - 14


Alley cropping diversifies plant
structure for wildlife habitat.
E. Silvopasture
Silvopastures combine trees,
forage, and livestock in an intensively
managed system. Silvopastures are
typically less diverse than a natural
forest understory, but incorporating
clumps of native grasses and forbs
can provide quality habitat for wild
turkey and other animals.
F. Special Applications
Many Working Trees practices
have been adapted to help people
and communities deal with problems,
such as wastewater and stormwater
treatment, with fast growing willows
and cottonwood trees. These trees
provide wildlife habitat and may be a
future energy source.

Designing For Wildlife


Placement Within Landscape
The way elements are arranged
within the larger landscape
determines the habitat value for
different species. Having food, cover,
and water located in the same vicinity
creates optimal habitat, and must
consider the wildlife species' normal

Amphibians live part of their life in water and part
on land. Green tree frogs are drawn to open, damp
areas and can be found under flakes of bark on trees.

14 WOODLAND * Winter 2020

range of mobility. For example, if the
desired species seldom feeds more
than 200 yards from escape cover,
it does little good to provide cover a
half mile from the food.
Diversity of Vegetation
By combining a variety of native
coniferous and deciduous trees
and shrubs and including perennial
and annual herbaceous vegetation,
summer and fall fruiting and
flowering dates are extended. Use
native plants whenever possible
because they usually provide better
habitat and are adapted to local
growing conditions. A mixture of
vegetation reduces the possibility of
losing all plants to disease, insects or
a catastrophic event.
Historically, fire, floods, wind, ice,
and wildlife browsing disturbed the
land which in turn helped control
invasive species and promote native
plant growth. Today, vegetation can
be managed by mowing, disking,
thinning, prescribed burning, and
grazing. The extent and timing of
disturbances help create diversity
and structure. Timing can also
minimize impact to wildlife, such as
mowing after nesting is complete.
Vertical Structure
Different layers of vegetation
allow an assortment of wildlife to
utilize the same area. Each tier
creates a niche in the habitat area.
Five or more layers are optimal and
include the canopy, understory,
shrub layer, herbaceous layer, and
the floor.
Horizontal Structure
Arrange vegetation to provide the
greatest width practical and transition

smoothly into the adjoining land use.
Incorporating clump plantings under
a tree canopy or along the outside
edge improves horizontal structure.
Minimize straight lines in the design if
Travel Lanes
Many species of wildlife need
a minimum amount of a particular
habitat type; if it gets to be too small
they won't use it.
Vegetation can be used to
connect several small isolated
areas within a landscape, thus
making those areas more viable
and increasing the usable space for

Get Started Today
Let the Natural Form Dominate
Thickets, brush piles, and fallen
branches provide cover for rabbits,
thrushes, and snakes. Minimize
pruning to encourage natural
diversity in the structure of plants.
Go Native and Think Seasonal
Native plants are adapted to local
soil, rainfall, and sunlight conditions;
they are apt to thrive and require
less maintenance. Choose plants
that provide food throughout the
Minimize Pesticide Use
Pesticides can kill more than just
target pests; they harm animals
that eat the sprayed vegetation
and eliminate pollinators. Consider
spot spraying or biological control
Leave Snags
A snag is a deteriorating or dead
standing tree. More than 85 North
American bird species rely on snags


Woodland - Winter 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Woodland - Winter 2020

Our Forests & Our Future
Cutthroat Brook Tree Farm & North Quabbin Land Trust Provide Accessible Trails
Forest Interactions
Outreach & Connections Through Virtual Events
Planting Seeds for the Future of Family Forestry
Woods, Wildlife and Warblers Program Obtain Funding for Expansion
Overcoming the Forester Capacity Challenge in the Western U.S.
2020 Policy Wins
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Intro
Woodland - Winter 2020 - cover1
Woodland - Winter 2020 - cover2
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 3
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Our Forests & Our Future
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 5
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Cutthroat Brook Tree Farm & North Quabbin Land Trust Provide Accessible Trails
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 7
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Forest Interactions
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 9
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 10
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 11
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 12
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 13
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 14
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 15
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 16
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 17
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Outreach & Connections Through Virtual Events
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 19
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 20
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 21
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 22
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 23
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Planting Seeds for the Future of Family Forestry
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 25
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 26
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 27
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 28
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Woods, Wildlife and Warblers Program Obtain Funding for Expansion
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 30
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 31
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 32
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 33
Woodland - Winter 2020 - Overcoming the Forester Capacity Challenge in the Western U.S.
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 35
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 2020 Policy Wins
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 37
Woodland - Winter 2020 - 38
Woodland - Winter 2020 - cover3
Woodland - Winter 2020 - cover4