Quality Progress - January 2016 - (Page 25)

BACK TO BASICS Best of APRIL 2015 BY T. DAN NELSON In the Beginning ... Identifying where a process starts and ends THE 2015 version of ISO 9001 is expected -a sales process. The chain in another the material has been pulled from the stag- to clarify the requirements to apply a organization might not have marketing ing area and verified by a machinist at the process approach to quality management. or design processes at all and could start specific machine (instead of being verified A common question arises from those new with a sales process. It depends on what by receiving personnel). to the process approach: "Where does a an organization specializes in and how it process begin and where does it end?" is structured to operate. It also depends process might be viewed as starting when on how management decides to define the a router is handed to a machinist, who is important. The simple answer: It doesn't links and the connections between those goes to the staging area, finds the order's matter. As long as it's well defined and links. previously verified material, and transports This is a good question, and the answer consistent with the inputs and outputs of Each link on the chain connects to In the former case, the production it to the machine. In the latter case, when interacting processes, the beginnings and other links. These connections, or process the router is handed to the machinist, the endings become clear. A process begins interactions, are defined in terms of pro- material has already been transported to where management says it does. This goes cess inputs and outputs. Each input is a the specific machine having been previous- for the end of a process as well. defined output from somewhere, and each ly verified by a machinist. Again, it doesn't output will be required at some point by a matter. By the design of the system, as subsequent process. long as somebody appropriately verifies Think of realization processes or core processes as being links of a chain. While the activities composing any process also A properly defined system outlines the incoming material before we start adding may be viewed as links of a chain, the process so the inputs and outputs of each focus here is on a system of processes. process are clear, complete and consistent Here, each link represents a real organiza- with inputs and outputs of other process- are defined, and inputs to processes match tional business process. Imagine that this es. The links of the chain should be sound- with outputs from previous processes, and chain begins with a customer requirement ly connected. If all goes well following the outputs from processes match with inputs and ends with the delivery of a product or links, the chain culminates in a product to ensuing processes, the beginnings and service that meets the customer's needs. that meets customer requirements. endings of the processes have been clearly Generally, as long as inputs and outputs articulated. It's known as a value chain. The chain in one organization might value to it, it's OK. When a process ends In the end, it's really about effective- start with marketing or design processes For example, one machining company ness. If a defined system of processes is followed by -or even concurrent with might define a receiving process as being coherent (inputs reconcile with outputs), finished when each process is performed as planned, and incoming materials following these plans produces acceptable have been veri- results, the planned arrangements can be fied by receiving considered to be effectively implemented. personnel, marked Ultimately, it's up to management, and with their respec- nobody else, to decide where processes tive job number begin, end and how they interact. QP and staged for production in the staging area. Another company might say that the T. DAN NELSON is the principal at T.D. Nelson in Denver. He earned his master's degree in business administration from the University of Iowa in Iowa City. receiving process is not finished until January 2016 * QP 25

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - January 2016

According to Plan
Solid Proof
Use Your Head
Stakeholder Management 101
Customer Delight
All About Data
Eight Simple Steps
Minimizing Chaos
Take Note
Pyramid Scheme
Assessing Failure
Which Six Sigma Metric Should I Use?
Turning ‘Who’ Into ‘How’
In the Beginning
Outputs and Outcomes
That’s So Random—Or Is It?
Understanding Variation
Improving a System
Putting It All on the Table
Know the Drill
It’s Fun To Work With an F-M-E-A
Solve Problems With Open Communication
Tell Me About It
Separate the Vital Few From the Trivial Many
To DMAIC or Not to DMAIC?
Breaking It Down
Smart Charting
1 + 1 = Zero Defects
QFD Explained
Curve Your Enthusiasm
Make a Choice
What Is a Fault Tree Analysis?
Successful Relationship Diagrams
The Benefits of PDCA
Creative Combination
Return on Investment
The Art of Root Cause Analysis
Why Ask Why?
Get to the Root of It
Checks and Balances
Calculated Risk
Sufficient Evidence
Sample Wise
Clearing SPC Hurdles
Supplier Selection and Maintenance
Team Advantage
Building a Quality Team
Plan Experiments to Prevent Problems
Substantiation Test
Training Day

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