Quality Progress - January 2016 - (Page 37)

BACK TO BASICS Best of DECEM B 2012 ER BY ALBERTO AYULO Breaking It Down Dissecting the problem-solving A3 report A3 THINKING is based on the plan-do- a completed problem-solving A3 in its check-act cycle. This powerful way of think- entirety using the major phase inspection team takes the root cause from Block 4 ing is transcribed on a piece of paper (the process for a U-2 aircraft as an example. and assigns specific countermeasures. The A3 report) a team of employees can use to The process is comprised of eight blocks, countermeasures should only specifically produce a desired outcome for a proposed the first of which is illustrated in Figure 1. address the root cause and, in theory, process. The A3 report is displayed on Remember there are an infinite number of should solve the problem identified in ledger-sized paper (11 x 17 inches) and is tools you can use throughout this process Block 1. The completed fifth block is broken into different sections, each clearly to populate each block: populated with any tool that will outline the labeled and arranged in a logical flow. The A3 report can be used for problem 1. Clarify and validate the problem. The team typically starts with a perceived 5. Develop countermeasures. The countermeasures. 6. See countermeasures through. solving, but there also are two other ways problem and uses data (quantitative, if The team tracks the countermeasures of using it: a proposal A3 report and a story- possible) to validate whether it is, in fact, a from Block 5 and ensures each one is ac- board A3 report. Each report has a slightly problem. The completed first block is popu- complished. The completed sixth block is different focus, and the experience level lated with a problem statement and data to populated with the tool used in Block 5 to of those facilitating the initiative may vary, validate it (Figure 1). outline the countermeasures and updated but the foundation behind each A3 will not 2. Break down the problem and identify performance gaps. Next, the team change. as each is accomplished. 7. Confirm results and process. begins to dissect the problem statement Depending on the course of action, the Blocks to success from Block 1 and determines the area of team begins to track the results as counter- Similar to the define, measure, analyze, focus. This is done using targeted data to measures are accomplished. After all are improve and control method, the problem- find specific focus areas that break down completed, the team will use the data from solving A3 has a specified path the user the larger problem into bite-sized pieces. Block 1 to determine if the countermeasures must follow from beginning to end. Online The completed second block is populated from Block 5 are improving the process. The Figure 1, found on this article's webpage with data determining a focus area. completed seventh block is populated with at www.qualityprogress.com, shows Block 1 of A3 report / 3. Set an improvement target. The team determines what FIGURE 1 continued data from Block 1. 8. Standardize successful processes. success will look like. The The team will standardize process only af- 1. Clarify and validate the problem. improvement target, or ter confirming successful results validated The U-2 major phase inspection is averaging 15 days, exceeding the 13-day inspection target, and cannot efficiently sustain worldwide U-2 aircraft operational requirements. goal, must be relative to the in Block 7. The completed eighth block is problem statement in Block populated with tasks that were implement- 1. The completed third ed to standardize process. U-2 major phase inspection days Sept. 10, 2008 - Feb. 27, 2009 block is populated with an improvement target. 4. Determine root Actual O&M days causes. Using the focus As with any other framework, repeated use of the A3 report is the fastest formula to success, as each experience brings a different outlook and a better understanding. QP Bad Good areas from Block 2, the team determines the root causes. The completed fourth block is populated using root cause analysis Average: 15 Trend = Up O&M = operations and maintenance tools and highlights the determined root cause. ALBERTO AYULO is the regional continuous improvement manager for the West Region of Johnson Controls in Tempe, AZ. He has a master's degree in HR management from Webster University in St. Louis. Ayulo is an ASQ-certified lean Six Sigma Black Belt and Project Management Institute-certified project management professional. January 2016 * QP 37 http://www.qualityprogress.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - January 2016

According to Plan
Solid Proof
Use Your Head
Stakeholder Management 101
Customer Delight
All About Data
Eight Simple Steps
Minimizing Chaos
Take Note
Pyramid Scheme
Assessing Failure
Which Six Sigma Metric Should I Use?
Turning ‘Who’ Into ‘How’
In the Beginning
Outputs and Outcomes
That’s So Random—Or Is It?
Understanding Variation
Improving a System
Putting It All on the Table
Know the Drill
It’s Fun To Work With an F-M-E-A
Solve Problems With Open Communication
Tell Me About It
Separate the Vital Few From the Trivial Many
To DMAIC or Not to DMAIC?
Breaking It Down
Smart Charting
1 + 1 = Zero Defects
QFD Explained
Curve Your Enthusiasm
Make a Choice
What Is a Fault Tree Analysis?
Successful Relationship Diagrams
The Benefits of PDCA
Creative Combination
Return on Investment
The Art of Root Cause Analysis
Why Ask Why?
Get to the Root of It
Checks and Balances
Calculated Risk
Sufficient Evidence
Sample Wise
Clearing SPC Hurdles
Supplier Selection and Maintenance
Team Advantage
Building a Quality Team
Plan Experiments to Prevent Problems
Substantiation Test
Training Day

Quality Progress - January 2016

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