Quality Progress - January 2016 - (Page 49)

BACK TO BASICS Best of MAY 2015 BY RAJEEV CHADHA Why Ask Why? A lesson on latent causes FIVE WHYS is a fundamental and simple be influenced at the initial stage. Their me with one of his chronic issues that was method of root cause analysis (RCA). Asking corrective actions need top management causing big losses and countless customer "Why?" is formalized by some industries and interventions to change programs, policies complaints about the product quality. We is a favored technique of many reliability, Six and procedures. did an initial five whys analysis (see Figure 1), and there were clear indications of a Sigma and manufacturing professionals. By We will focus solely on latent causes repeatedly asking the question "Why?" you because identifying them early can prevent latent cause. The engineer got his answer can peel away layers of the symptoms that other organizational issues. Although as to why the product, though greatly lead to a problem's root cause. Often, the intensive investigation and what may seem under-specified, was still running. ostensible reason for a problem will lead you like a tedious amount of evidence collection As explained in the diagram, solving to another question. Although this technique may be required, these steps are imperative the physical root cause of the issue is not is called five whys, you may need to ask the in earning managerial approval to proceed sufficient in many circumstances and that question fewer or more than five times be- with corrective action. is why it is important to influence management about the latent and systemic causes fore you find the issue related to a problem. Some believe that there are five levels Dealing with latent causes of the problem you are tackling. Organizational plans are the how-to doc- of causes: cause effect, physical cause, At the organizational level, latent causes human cause, systemic cause and latent are the conscious decisions made regarding uments that show how company operations cause. If the cause is physical or human, whether to do certain things. Most of the are performed. If we want to know how it can be corrected easily. Systemic and time, these causes do not include simple the production, quality assurance, human latent causes, on the other hand, can only employee mistakes (such as forgetting resources or marketing in an organization a step in a process), nor do they include will take place, the plan will explain those repercussions of inadequate training. These processes as well. So, to unfold the latent kinds of issues will be discovered and dealt cause of a chronic organizational problem, with when probing for latent causes. you may need to involve upper manage- Latent root cause example / FIGURE 1 Nonconforming product shipped to the customer, and discounts were given every time. Why? Product was nonconforming because hydro-separator was bypassed and product cannot be refined further. Why was the process bypassed? Current repairs are insufficient to run the equipment effectively. Repair of rake-gearbox is the physical cause. Current repairs are insufficient to run the equipment effectively. Why is the equipment not replaced? Replacement needs capital, but capital is not available for this project. Why? One automotive supplier addressed ment. The simplest approach is to develop multiple customer complaints regarding a an activity hierarchy and unveil the latent plastic molding die and eventually altered root cause so that management can change the die to resolve the issue. The die's life the operational plan. cycle was ending, and the team was still said, "If you don't ask the right questions, human levels. The actual issue regarding you don't get the right answers. A question the faulty plastic parts used in the die- asked in the right way often points to its holding containers was, in fact, the latent own answer. Questions are the ABCs of cause. The tool was old and needed to be diagnosis. Only an inquiring mind solves replaced, but neither management nor the problems." QP customer wanted to invest in the production of an entirely new tool. Industrial latent causes are nothing new, but as an RCA specialist, it is important Current capital decision makers see replacement as low priority. Product is still selling and equipment can be replaced on a later date. (This is the latent systemic root cause of the issue.) As famous author Edward Hodnett once tracing the root cause at the physical and to encourage management to accept the reality of these causes so it can decide what corrective action is necessary. A refinery chemical engineer approached RAJEEV CHADHA is an industrial technology advisor for the National Research Council Canada in Alberta, providing advisory services in mining, manufacturing and chemical processes. He has a master's degree in systems management from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi in New Delhi. A senior member of ASQ, Chadha is a certified Black Belt, and quality engineer and auditor. January 2016 * QP 49

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - January 2016

According to Plan
Solid Proof
Use Your Head
Stakeholder Management 101
Customer Delight
All About Data
Eight Simple Steps
Minimizing Chaos
Take Note
Pyramid Scheme
Assessing Failure
Which Six Sigma Metric Should I Use?
Turning ‘Who’ Into ‘How’
In the Beginning
Outputs and Outcomes
That’s So Random—Or Is It?
Understanding Variation
Improving a System
Putting It All on the Table
Know the Drill
It’s Fun To Work With an F-M-E-A
Solve Problems With Open Communication
Tell Me About It
Separate the Vital Few From the Trivial Many
To DMAIC or Not to DMAIC?
Breaking It Down
Smart Charting
1 + 1 = Zero Defects
QFD Explained
Curve Your Enthusiasm
Make a Choice
What Is a Fault Tree Analysis?
Successful Relationship Diagrams
The Benefits of PDCA
Creative Combination
Return on Investment
The Art of Root Cause Analysis
Why Ask Why?
Get to the Root of It
Checks and Balances
Calculated Risk
Sufficient Evidence
Sample Wise
Clearing SPC Hurdles
Supplier Selection and Maintenance
Team Advantage
Building a Quality Team
Plan Experiments to Prevent Problems
Substantiation Test
Training Day

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