Quality Progress - January 2016 - (Page 61)
BACK TO BASICS
BY CLIFF MOSER
A WWII program is used to instruct project staff
EFFECTIVELY TRAINING project staff
improve their ability to work with staff.
and capturing and diffusing the training is
TWI supported the five needs with a
what was presented and check results.
4. Testing: Test the ability of the learner
to apply the new idea alone.
difficult within any industry. At my com-
three-part program of job instruction,
pany, Cadforce Inc., we used a forgotten
methods and relations. The philosophy
program from the World War II era to help
and rollout of the program was based on
systems, identified the relationship of indi-
train construction field staff.
training within industry-that is, to coach
vidual tasks to others and systems within
Training Within Industry (TWI) was
supervisors within the organization so
the organization. Individual tasks, which
used successfully to train thousands of
the newly trained staff can teach other
had been delineated through task instruc-
inexperienced American workers between
members of the industry.
tion, were measured against the project's
1940 and 1945. After the war, TWI became
An example of promoting TWI is the
The second part, task methods and
system requirements (see Online Figure 2).
The third part, task improvement, be-
the training program that helped revive
industry estimate that skilled optical
the economic infrastructures of many
glass grinders required three years of
came the kaizen, or continuous improve-
war-torn countries. TWI enabled these
apprenticeship before they could suc-
economies to reinvent their industrial and
cessfully turn out an acceptable product.
manufacturing training programs.
Training sounded similar enough to the
which we called project staff training,
By implementing our version of TWI,
Our project team discovered TWI and its
architectural and construction industry's
we were able to instruct our site-based
foundational principle, the five needs, while
requirements, so we investigated further.
staff team more quickly and effectively,
exploring lean tools. We worked with the
We needed to slightly modify the training
as well as help staff assume a productive
Lean Construction Institute to develop lean
to make it more adaptable to our profes-
role in creating and improving systems
systems for construction services, as well
sional staff by changing the three-part jobs
while developing learned and transferable
as create standardized work and processes.
program to task instruction, task methods
We found we needed a training program to
and systems, and task improvement.
True to the original TWI philosophy, the
team went on to become mentors in the
help diffuse our lean program.
transfer and improvement of those process-
TWI and the five needs
Task instruction stressed understanding
es to other internal teams and projects, as
We discovered the original TWI trainers
the task requirements and created task
well as client, contractor and code review
built the program on a knowledge model
breakdown requirements, including im-
agency teams. We have implemented it as a
of the five needs:
portant steps, key points and reasons for
basic part of our skills training program for
1. Knowledge of work: Information that
key points (see Online Figure 1 at www.
onshore and offshore staff. QP
makes one business different from
2. Knowledge of responsibilities: A
In developing breakdown sheets for
each task, the trainer, our project man-
company's policies, rules and organiza-
ager, had to think through each task's step
and action, and identify the purpose for
3. Skill in instructing: Helping supervisors develop a well-trained workforce.
4. Skill in improving methods: By
requiring trainers or supervisors to
identify and list each task breakdown,
the trainer and learner identify areas
5. Skill in leading: Helping the trainers
each before training a staff member in the
task. Our training matched the TWI curriculum and consisted of four steps:
1. Preparation: Help the learner think to
help comprehend the new idea.
2. Presentation: Add the new idea to
those already in the learner's mind.
3. Application: Train the learner to apply
Dinero, Donald, Training Within Industry: The Foundation of
Lean, Productivity Press, 2005.
Graupp, Patrick and Wrona, Robert J., The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors, Productivity Press, 2006.
Imai, Masaaki, Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 1986.
Lean Construction Institute, www.leanconstruction.org.
TWI Institute, www.trainingwithinindustry.net.
CLIFF MOSER is vice president of
project experience for Cadforce
Inc., a global architectural services
outsourcing firm in Marina del Rey,
CA. He earned a master's degree
in quality assurance from California
State University in Dominguez Hills.
Moser is a senior member of ASQ and
is chair of ASQ's Design and Construction Division.
January 2016 * QP 61
Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - January 2016
According to Plan
Use Your Head
Stakeholder Management 101
All About Data
Eight Simple Steps
Which Six Sigma Metric Should I Use?
Turning ‘Who’ Into ‘How’
In the Beginning
Outputs and Outcomes
That’s So Random—Or Is It?
Improving a System
Putting It All on the Table
Know the Drill
It’s Fun To Work With an F-M-E-A
Solve Problems With Open Communication
Tell Me About It
Separate the Vital Few From the Trivial Many
To DMAIC or Not to DMAIC?
Breaking It Down
1 + 1 = Zero Defects
Curve Your Enthusiasm
Make a Choice
What Is a Fault Tree Analysis?
Successful Relationship Diagrams
The Benefits of PDCA
Return on Investment
The Art of Root Cause Analysis
Why Ask Why?
Get to the Root of It
Checks and Balances
Clearing SPC Hurdles
Supplier Selection and Maintenance
Building a Quality Team
Plan Experiments to Prevent Problems
Quality Progress - January 2016