Quality Progress - January 2016 - (Page 61)

BACK TO BASICS Best of MARC 2009 H BY CLIFF MOSER Training Day A WWII program is used to instruct project staff EFFECTIVELY TRAINING project staff improve their ability to work with staff. and capturing and diffusing the training is TWI supported the five needs with a what was presented and check results. 4. Testing: Test the ability of the learner to apply the new idea alone. difficult within any industry. At my com- three-part program of job instruction, pany, Cadforce Inc., we used a forgotten methods and relations. The philosophy program from the World War II era to help and rollout of the program was based on systems, identified the relationship of indi- train construction field staff. training within industry-that is, to coach vidual tasks to others and systems within Training Within Industry (TWI) was supervisors within the organization so the organization. Individual tasks, which used successfully to train thousands of the newly trained staff can teach other had been delineated through task instruc- inexperienced American workers between members of the industry. tion, were measured against the project's 1940 and 1945. After the war, TWI became An example of promoting TWI is the The second part, task methods and system requirements (see Online Figure 2). The third part, task improvement, be- the training program that helped revive industry estimate that skilled optical the economic infrastructures of many glass grinders required three years of came the kaizen, or continuous improve- war-torn countries. TWI enabled these apprenticeship before they could suc- ment, activity. economies to reinvent their industrial and cessfully turn out an acceptable product. manufacturing training programs. Training sounded similar enough to the which we called project staff training, By implementing our version of TWI, Our project team discovered TWI and its architectural and construction industry's we were able to instruct our site-based foundational principle, the five needs, while requirements, so we investigated further. staff team more quickly and effectively, exploring lean tools. We worked with the We needed to slightly modify the training as well as help staff assume a productive Lean Construction Institute to develop lean to make it more adaptable to our profes- role in creating and improving systems systems for construction services, as well sional staff by changing the three-part jobs while developing learned and transferable as create standardized work and processes. program to task instruction, task methods skillsets. We found we needed a training program to and systems, and task improvement. True to the original TWI philosophy, the team went on to become mentors in the help diffuse our lean program. Tracking tasks transfer and improvement of those process- TWI and the five needs Task instruction stressed understanding es to other internal teams and projects, as We discovered the original TWI trainers the task requirements and created task well as client, contractor and code review built the program on a knowledge model breakdown requirements, including im- agency teams. We have implemented it as a of the five needs: portant steps, key points and reasons for basic part of our skills training program for 1. Knowledge of work: Information that key points (see Online Figure 1 at www. onshore and offshore staff. QP makes one business different from other businesses. 2. Knowledge of responsibilities: A qualityprogress.com). In developing breakdown sheets for each task, the trainer, our project man- company's policies, rules and organiza- ager, had to think through each task's step tional requirements. and action, and identify the purpose for 3. Skill in instructing: Helping supervisors develop a well-trained workforce. 4. Skill in improving methods: By requiring trainers or supervisors to identify and list each task breakdown, the trainer and learner identify areas for improvement. 5. Skill in leading: Helping the trainers each before training a staff member in the task. Our training matched the TWI curriculum and consisted of four steps: 1. Preparation: Help the learner think to help comprehend the new idea. 2. Presentation: Add the new idea to those already in the learner's mind. 3. Application: Train the learner to apply BIBLIOGRAPHY Dinero, Donald, Training Within Industry: The Foundation of Lean, Productivity Press, 2005. Graupp, Patrick and Wrona, Robert J., The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors, Productivity Press, 2006. Imai, Masaaki, Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 1986. Lean Construction Institute, www.leanconstruction.org. TWI Institute, www.trainingwithinindustry.net. CLIFF MOSER is vice president of project experience for Cadforce Inc., a global architectural services outsourcing firm in Marina del Rey, CA. He earned a master's degree in quality assurance from California State University in Dominguez Hills. Moser is a senior member of ASQ and is chair of ASQ's Design and Construction Division. January 2016 * QP 61 http://www.qualityprogress.com http://www.leanconstruction.org http://www.trainingwithinindustry.net

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - January 2016

According to Plan
Solid Proof
Use Your Head
Stakeholder Management 101
Customer Delight
All About Data
Eight Simple Steps
Minimizing Chaos
Take Note
Pyramid Scheme
Assessing Failure
Which Six Sigma Metric Should I Use?
Turning ‘Who’ Into ‘How’
In the Beginning
Outputs and Outcomes
That’s So Random—Or Is It?
Understanding Variation
Improving a System
Putting It All on the Table
Know the Drill
It’s Fun To Work With an F-M-E-A
Solve Problems With Open Communication
Tell Me About It
Separate the Vital Few From the Trivial Many
To DMAIC or Not to DMAIC?
Breaking It Down
Smart Charting
1 + 1 = Zero Defects
QFD Explained
Curve Your Enthusiasm
Make a Choice
What Is a Fault Tree Analysis?
Successful Relationship Diagrams
The Benefits of PDCA
Creative Combination
Return on Investment
The Art of Root Cause Analysis
Why Ask Why?
Get to the Root of It
Checks and Balances
Calculated Risk
Sufficient Evidence
Sample Wise
Clearing SPC Hurdles
Supplier Selection and Maintenance
Team Advantage
Building a Quality Team
Plan Experiments to Prevent Problems
Substantiation Test
Training Day

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