Quality Progress - March 2017 - 32


F E AT U R E

INNOVATION
member, and compression is squeezing it.
For a steel truss bridge, the steel segments that will be
extended are tension members, and those that will be squeezed
when the bridge is complete and vehicles pass over are compression members (see Figure 4, p. 31). The bridge engineers must use
sufficient steel to handle these distinct applications. In general,
compression members require a greater steel content or a stronger design than tension members do because they need to resist
buckling. Tension members don't usually need to be as stout.
While the bridge is under construction, however, sometimes a
member will be used for a purpose opposite its final application. A
steel member that will be in a position of compression in the final

structure, for instance, may need to be used for tension to support
the construction of the bridge until it is complete, and vice versa.
It is important to know compression members can be used
easily as tension members during construction because they are
generally sturdier, but tension members don't respond to a compression role as easily. They are being tasked to perform a difficult
job during the construction-one they will not need to do when
the project is complete. In this case, some reinforcement may be
needed during construction, or the crew may employ falseworks.
The principle of tension and compression members can be
employed with people who play a role in an innovation initiative.
Some will lean forward and are ready for the next innovation, and

AFFINITY, CLOCK AND SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS
A team is trying to decide which problems
to address first. Team members gather
in person or in a virtual meeting and ask
one another what issues should be fixed in
their department. Each person is asked to
contribute ideas.
If team members are meeting in person,
they are given sticky notes on which to
write down their ideas-one idea per
sheet. Team members are instructed to
put all their sticky note ideas on a wall
or flipchart. After everyone has posted
individual ideas on the wall, there may be
many sticky notes to sort through. This
may look like a daunting, difficult job, and

Interrelationship
digraph or clock
diagram
A
B
D
32 QP

Pair of themes
E

A

it may appear that department has lots of
problems.

AFFINITY DIAGRAM

Team members are asked to approach the
wall and read each other's notes quietly.
Then the members are instructed to group
the sticky notes that include related
ideas. It's best to conduct this exercise
silently so no single voice dominates.
(If this is a virtual meeting, however,
silence isn't possible.) After the team has
grouped all of the sticky notes, a circle is
drawn around each group. A name or title
that captures the theme the individual
notes portray is then given to each group.

SIDEBAR FIGURE 1

E

SIDEBAR FIGURE 2

C

March 2017 ❘ qualityprogress.com

INTERRELATIONSHIP DIGRAPH
OR CLOCK DIAGRAM

Each theme from the affinity diagram is
transferred to another space-a whiteboard or new flipchart page, or a new
document if the meeting is being conducted virtually. The theme titles are
arranged in a circular shape.
Next, the team assesses the relationship
between each pair of items. For example,
between A and B, A and C, A and D, A and E,
B and C, and B and D (see Sidebar Figure 1.)

SIDEBAR FIGURE 3

Sequence diagram
B

D

C

A

E

For each pair, an arrow is drawn with
the arrowhead pointing to the item
that must be fixed first or the item the
other depends on when the process is
executed or when the team is working
normally. The arrow in Sidebar Figure
2 means the E theme depends on the A
theme, or A must be fixed before E can
be fixed.
The last step in building a clock diagram
is to count the arrowheads attached to
each item and write them next to the
theme title.

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM

Starting with the largest number of arrowheads and ending with the lowest number,
list the theme titles in order. See Sidebar
Figure 3.
In this case, B is listed first because
it has three arrowheads touching it in
the clock diagram. If two items have the
same number of arrowheads touching
them, precedence goes to the item with
the arrowhead when it is matched with
the other item having the same number.
In this case, the arrow between B and
D points to B in the clock diagram. This
is now the best order for improving the
themes. -T.O.


http://www.qualityprogress.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - March 2017

Seen and Heard
Expert Answers
Progress Report
Mr. Pareto Head
Field Notes
Innovation Imperative
Hard Wired
Propel Forward
Life After Disruption
Work Smarter, Not Harder
Statistics Spotlight
Standard Issues
Marketplace
Footnotes
Back to Basics
Quality Progress - March 2017 - cover1
Quality Progress - March 2017 - cover2
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 1
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 2
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 3
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 4
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 5
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Seen and Heard
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 7
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Expert Answers
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 9
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Progress Report
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 11
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 12
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Mr. Pareto Head
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Field Notes
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 15
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 16
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 17
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Innovation Imperative
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 19
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 20
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 21
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Hard Wired
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 23
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 24
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 25
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 26
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 27
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Propel Forward
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 29
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 30
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 31
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 32
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 33
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Life After Disruption
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 35
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 36
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 37
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 38
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 39
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Work Smarter, Not Harder
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 41
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 42
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 43
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Statistics Spotlight
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 45
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 46
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 47
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Standard Issues
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 49
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Marketplace
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 51
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Footnotes
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 53
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 54
Quality Progress - March 2017 - 55
Quality Progress - March 2017 - Back to Basics
Quality Progress - March 2017 - cover3
Quality Progress - March 2017 - cover4
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