Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 30

curves of concrete rise to maximum stress, reached at a strain of between 0.0015 and 0.0025, followed by descending branch. The shape of the curve results from the gradual formation of the micro cracks within the structure of the concrete. Furthermore, the length of the descending branch of the curve is strongly affected by the test condition. Frequently, an axially loaded concrete test cylinder will fail explosively at the point of maximum stress. This will occur in an axially flexible testing machine if the strain energy released by the testing machine as the load drops exceeds the energy that the specimen can absorb. In a member loaded in bending, or bending plus axial load, the descending branch will exist since the stress drops in the most highly strained fibers. Other less highly strained fibers can resist the load, thus delaying the failure of the highly strained fibers. The modulus of elasticity of concrete (Ec) has been BUOYS - FLOATS - CHANNEL MARKERS calculated based on ACI 350 (2006) for the normal-weight concrete with normal density of 2300 Kg/m3 as: Ec = 57,000 (f'c)½/145 (1) For concrete under tension, the modulus of elasticity of concrete (Ec) is also taken as 26000 MPa. A reasonable starting point, for relatively heavily reinforced concrete modeled with a fairly detailed mesh, is to assume that the strain softening after failure reduces the stress linearly to zero at a total strain of about 10 times the strain at failure. The tensile strain at failure in normal concretes is typically 10-4, which suggests that tension stiffening that reduces the stress to zero at a total strain of about 10-3 is reasonable. However, this value is considered as 0.005 in the FE analysis due to the effect of strain rate loading on the tensile stress-strain curve of concrete. The strain rate is the time duration of the loading processes, which describes the rapidness of deformation processes. 3.6 Anchor Bars Oval Floats Round Floats The analytical approximation to the tension and compression stressstrain curve for anchor bars is modeled using elastic-plastic curve for grade 33 anchor bars with yield strength (f y) equals to 228 MPa, and maximum strain at ultimate load, which equals to 0.1 as shown in Figure 2. However, even though the anchor bars were modeled, they were not part of the analyses due to the size and running time of the model. 3.7 Stay Vanes and Speed Rings Steel grade 36 is used for both of the stay vanes and speed rings. The minimum tensile strength (f u) is 482 MPa, and the yield strength (f y) is 248 MPa. Furthermore, the elastic modulus (Es) is 200,000 MPa. Figure 3 shows the stress-strain curve for the stay vanes and speed rings. 4 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING Float Collar Can & Regulatory Buoys / Channel Markers Call l 800.899.2977 30 463383_Worthington.indd 1 Click l www.tuffbuoy.com The model consisted of three Parts: * Anchor bars. * Concrete substructure. * Stay vanes and speed rings. View past issues of 2/23/10 the CDA11:03:43 Bulletin AM online at www.naylornetwork.com/cda-NXT/ http://www.tuffbuoy.com http://www.tuffbuoy.com http://www.naylornetwork.com/cda-NXT/

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016

Board of Directors
Board of Directors Nominations
Remedial Work at Lake Major Dam
CDA Conference Report: Otto Holden Generating Station Alkali-Aggregate Reaction Investigation
DSR Bulletin
Icold Corner
Notice of Annual General Meeting
Call for Papers, 2017 Conference
Young Professional Activities
Buyers’ Guide and Trade List
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - cover1
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - cover2
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 3
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 4
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 5
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 6
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Board of Directors
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 8
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Board of Directors Nominations
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Remedial Work at Lake Major Dam
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 11
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 12
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 13
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 14
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 15
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 16
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 17
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 18
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 19
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 20
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 21
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 22
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 23
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 24
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 25
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - CDA Conference Report: Otto Holden Generating Station Alkali-Aggregate Reaction Investigation
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 27
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 28
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 29
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 30
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 31
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 32
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 33
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 34
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 35
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 36
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 37
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - DSR Bulletin
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Icold Corner
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 40
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Notice of Annual General Meeting
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Call for Papers, 2017 Conference
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 43
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Young Professional Activities
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - Buyers’ Guide and Trade List
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - 46
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - cover3
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - cover4
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - outsert1
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - outsert2
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - outsert3
Canadian Dam Association Bulletin - Fall 2016 - outsert4
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