Landscapes - Spring 2015 - LPplus22

NEW DIRECTIONS | NOUVELLES AVENUES
MARILOU CHAMPAGNE
How a Modicum
of Disorder
Could Save
Pollinators
EN_
IN 1871, MARTIN JOHNSON HEADE
painted Cattleya Orchid and Three
Hummingbirds, inspired by the work of
Charles Darwin on the importance of
insects to the fertilization of flowers.
In this chaotic nature scene, the
orchid is the protagonist representing
botanical adaptation and fertility. The
hummingbird plays a major part by
pollinating the flower. The co-evolution
of flowers and their pollinators is a dance
of seduction that has allowed both sides
to thrive.
More than 200 years ago, in The
Temple of Nature (1803), Erasmus
Darwin, the grandfather of Charles,
defended the idea of a "sum total
of terrestrial happiness" - the
association between insects and larger
animals required to ensure harmony
and pleasure.
The current precariousness of certain
pollinators' existence is the root cause
of a rift in the sum total of terrestrial
happiness. The idea of protecting them
is part of a broader, vital necessity:
preserving biodiversity. We must ask
ourselves whether, like Heade's orchid,
we can find the means to co-exist with
them before it is too late. The painting
expresses a fundamental truth: a
modicum of disorder in the landscape
could bring us back into harmony
with pollinators.
"BENEVOLENT" ECONOMIC
AGENTS AT RISK
Pollinators are put in jeopardy
by externalities resulting from
22 LANDSCAPES PAYSAGES
our activities. Monocultures and
urbanization have spread, modifying
our landscapes and the scope of
ecosystemic services which are provided
to humanity by the environment
(Maisonhaute 2014). Pollination is one
such service, estimated to be valued at
$200 billion (Gallai et al. 2009).
The lack of plant species diversity,
a consequence of the industrial
production of plants, leads to significant
deficiencies for pollinator animals, birds
and insects. The large-scale use of
pesticides is also linked to the collapse
of pollinators' immune systems, making
them vulnerable to a variety of diseases
and deformities.
Bee colony collapse disorder is a global
phenomenon that demands a more
thorough understanding of pollinators
and their fundamental role in ecological
balance. Wild spaces that were once
their primary habitat have now been
replaced by human landscapes, making
them victims of our development.
The spread of impermeable surfaces is
DERIVING VALUE FROM
URBAN RESIDUAL SPACES
Approximately 54 per cent of the
world's population lives in urban areas,
a figure expected to reach 66 per cent
by 2050 (United Nations 2014). The
urbanization phenomenon threatens our
contact with nature. And yet, cities are
thick with free space, creating a canvas
rich in possibilities for pollinator species,
which should lead us to question the
viability of our current approach to
urban design and planning.
one of the main obstacles to pollinators
(Sattle et al. 2010). In addition,
maintained land is less frequently visited
by pollinators than that which is left
unmaintained (Tommasi et al. 2010).
The development of lands - whether
provincial, municipal or private -
should therefore be planned to include
unmaintained parcels, which represent
potential sources of food and shelter for
pollinators. These parcels could represent
as many kinds of positive opportunities
as there are types of pollinators. A city

Landscapes - Spring 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Landscapes - Spring 2015

To Being With | Pour Commencer
The New Small | Le Microcosme Réinventé
Paula Meijerink, Guest Editor | Rédactrice invitée
EN_LP+ | Small Matters: Backgrounder
FR_LP+ | Prodigieuse Petitesse
Writers | Collaboratuers
Je Vois Montreal
Upfront | Prologue
Forêt urbaine
Urban Braille
Find Your Pebble
Folly Forest
Parklet Experiment
Klynstra Scholarship
Prix 2014 Schwabenbauer
The Common Sense Curb Cut
Essay | Essai
Doggy Style
Projects in Place: The LA Flash Mob
Tiny Taxonomy
Lying Down in Public
Kelowna asks, "What if,,"
A Non-Urban Approach X3
New Directions | Nouvelles Avenues
Opinion
Critique
The Last Word | Le Mot de la Fin
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - cover1
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - cover2
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 3
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 4
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 5
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 6
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 7
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - FR_LP+ | Prodigieuse Petitesse
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 9
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Writers | Collaboratuers
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Je Vois Montreal
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - The Common Sense Curb Cut
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 13
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 14
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 15
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 16
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 17
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 18
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 19
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Essay | Essai
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 21
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 22
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 23
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Doggy Style
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 25
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 26
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 27
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 28
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 29
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Projects in Place: The LA Flash Mob
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 31
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Tiny Taxonomy
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 33
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 34
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 35
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 36
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 37
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 38
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Lying Down in Public
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 40
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 41
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Kelowna asks, "What if,,"
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 43
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 44
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 45
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - A Non-Urban Approach X3
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 47
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 48
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 49
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - New Directions | Nouvelles Avenues
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 51
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 52
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 53
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Opinion
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 55
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 56
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 57
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - Critique
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 59
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 60
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 61
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 62
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 63
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 64
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - 65
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - The Last Word | Le Mot de la Fin
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - cover3
Landscapes - Spring 2015 - cover4
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