Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 33

ESSEX COUNT Y IN SPRING | LE PRINTEMPS DANS LE COMPTÉ D'ESSEX

----
JUSTINE HOLZMAN + SANDRA COOK

FLOODING FIELDS

Designing the strategic inundation of
Lake Erie's agricultural landscape

FR_ RESUMÉ
CHAMPS INONDES
Pour réduire la pollution par le
phosphore, le projet Wet Lands propose
des interventions appliquées à chaque
ferme qui réduisent les émissions tout
en soutenant l'économie agricole.
Chaque ferme étant unique, Wet
Lands utilise les données historiques
et actuelles pour modéliser les
paramètres et visualiser les effets des
politiques flexibles.
> LP+_FOR MORE FLOODING FIELDS
IMAGES + FIGURES
MAPPING OF PHOSPHOROUS IMPACTS ON LAKE ERIE, AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND AREAS USING TILE DRAINAGE
ALL FIGURES + RENDERINGS BY JUSTINE HOLZMAN + SANDRA COOK

EN_
WATER DOWN THE DRAIN
Millions of metres of drainage tiles
and canals swiftly carry nutrient-rich
water off the agricultural landscapes
of Southern Ontario and into rivers
and waterbodies. Lake Erie, once
proclaimed "dead," has for decades
suffered from massive algal blooms.
The culprit, phosphorous, is a main
ingredient in agricultural fertilizers.
Once a land of swamps and marshes,
the now heavily fertilized agricultural
landscapes of Essex County are a main
contributor to the yearly Harmful Algal
Blooms (HABs) of Lake Erie.
To reduce phosphorous across
Essex County, the design research
project Wet Lands, proposes policies
and landscape design interventions
specific to individual farms that reduce
phosphorous while supporting the
agricultural economy. Because the
landscape is variable and each farm

is unique, Wet Lands uses historic and
current data with parametric modelling
techniques to visualize the effects of
flexible policies across the region.
PIPES AND POLICIES
In North America, the draining of
inundated lands for agricultural
land reclamation began long ago
as a primary tool of colonization.
Unsurprisingly, this practice has been
the leading cause of historic wetland
loss. Essex was settled by French
soldiers and later British loyalists after
the American revolution. Once all the
naturally draining land was deforested
and settled, early subsurface drainage
methods were employed. Introduced
from Britain, Canadian farmers began
digging trenches to fill with sticks and
stones and cover with earth to remove

excess water from the soil. However,
the majority of Essex remained swamp
until the Ontario Drainage Acts of 1869
and 1873, which made the drainage of
large swaths of land achievable.
Main drains were cut through swamps
and marshes and guaranteed by the
municipal council, who collected annual
rent from landowners benefiting from
the drain. As manufacturing advanced,
subsurface rubble was replaced with
agricultural tile drains. Clay pipes were
extruded in mass and placed end to
end in trenches allowing water to seep
into the tube through small gaps. And
in the 1950s, polyethylene corrugated
drainage tube was manufactured
in long segments to be laid down in
one continuous piece by trenching
machines and tractors.
WINTER | HIVER 2017 33



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Landscapes - Winter 2017

To Begin With
Une Dernière Salve
Collaborateurs
Writers
Upfront
Prologue
La Vague
Romance of the Stone
La Pierre Romancée
Numériser La Nature
Riding Technology’s Wild Interface
Flooding Fields
Conversation
Designing Invisible Landscapes
Stacking Up - the LA’s Toolkit: A Groundhog Plugin for Grasshopper
Grasshopper Gagne Un Plugiciel
Wood Works
Floating a New Idea for Water Stewardship
LACF
Bourses De La FACP
Critique
Parting Shot
Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - INTRO
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover1
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover2
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 5
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 6
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 7
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 9
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Writers
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 11
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 12
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 13
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 14
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Prologue
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 16
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 17
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 18
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 19
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - La Vague
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 21
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - La Pierre Romancée
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 23
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 24
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 25
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 26
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 27
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Riding Technology’s Wild Interface
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 29
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 30
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 31
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 32
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Flooding Fields
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 34
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 35
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Conversation
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 37
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 38
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 39
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 40
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 41
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 42
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Designing Invisible Landscapes
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 44
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 45
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Grasshopper Gagne Un Plugiciel
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 47
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 48
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 49
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 50
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 51
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Wood Works
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 53
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Floating a New Idea for Water Stewardship
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 55
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 56
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 57
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 58
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Bourses De La FACP
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 60
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 61
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Critique
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 63
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 64
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 65
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 66
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 67
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 68
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 69
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 70
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 71
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 72
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 73
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 74
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 75
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 76
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 78
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus1
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