Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 43

MEASURING THE MICROCLIMATE

----
ROBERT BROWN + ROB LEBLANC

DESIGNING
INVISIBLE
LANDSCAPES

1 FACE COOLING IN WINTER CONDITIONS
PHOTO ANDREW BRIGGS

EN_
MYSTERIOUS FORCES ARE AT
WORK in the landscape. At times these
invisible forces gently nudge people
out of some landscapes; at other times
they forcibly expel everyone, emptying
the site. These forces are flows of
energy and although our eyes can't
see them, they are perhaps the most
powerful determinant of the success
or failure of a landscape designed
for people.
Landscape elements like soil, water
and vegetation can all be seen,
quantified, inventoried and modified,
yet we only catch fleeting glimpses of
the flows of energy. Our eyes can't see
convection, evaporation, terrestrial
radiation, metabolism or conduction.
Yet all of these have a strong influence
on how and where people will spend
time in the landscape.
Collaborations between landscape
architects, micrometeorologists
and biometeorologists have yielded
some remarkable advances not only
in jointly developing instruments
that make these unseen elements
visible, but also in understanding how
humans respond to microclimates.
When we design landscapes where
the amount of energy people receive
in the space is the same as the
amount they are losing...where gains
and losses are in balance...we create
comfortable landscapes.

EVERYTHING EMITS RADIATION
For most people one of the most
difficult energy flows to visualize is
terrestrial radiation. Everything on
earth (and in fact everything in the
universe) emits radiation. The hotter
the object the more radiation it emits.
Think of a time when you were standing
near an outdoor fire. The fire was not
warming the air; the heat that you
were feeling was arriving as terrestrial
radiation. There is now an amazing
instrument that turns terrestrial
radiation into colour images and
allows us to see the temperature of
any object and how much radiation it's
emitting. It's called a forward looking
infrared (FLIR) camera. Andrew Briggs,
now with Enns Gauthier Landscape
Architects in Vancouver, used one of
these cameras in his MLA research to
measure how faces cool down in windy
winter conditions. The results deepen
our understanding of how to design
outdoor places that people will use
during winter. (Ask us for a PDF of the
paper printed in International Journal
of Biometeorology:
rbrown@arch.tamu.edu)

of long-term care facilities for the
elderly. By analyzing the aerial thermal
images we can identify dangerously
hot locations (bright red areas) and
pleasantly cool spots (blue areas).
Microclimate measurements have
traditionally been taken at one place -
usually at an airport. But when we're
considering people using a landscape
we really need to be able to measure
the microclimate along a transect on
site. Another mobile measurement
tool, a mobile microclimate station
attached to a bicycle, was pioneered
by University of Guelph student
Graham Slater. His MLA research
won an ASLA Award of Excellence.
Now, PhD student Wenwen Cheng is
taking that design to a higher level.
The climacycle (or microbike - we're
not sure of the right name yet) is a
very stable mobile station that takes
measures along transects. While
we're measuring with the bike, we also
have a station on the ground and a
drone in the air...and we do it all while
LANDSAT is going overhead, so we
can see the microclimate from several
different perspectives.

DUOS AND DRONES
A miniature version of the FLIR,
called duo, can be attached to a
drone. At Texas A&M University,
Dr. Eric Bardenhagen and I are
using this technology to study the
thermal conditions of outdoor areas
WINTER | HIVER 2017 43



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Landscapes - Winter 2017

To Begin With
Une Dernière Salve
Collaborateurs
Writers
Upfront
Prologue
La Vague
Romance of the Stone
La Pierre Romancée
Numériser La Nature
Riding Technology’s Wild Interface
Flooding Fields
Conversation
Designing Invisible Landscapes
Stacking Up - the LA’s Toolkit: A Groundhog Plugin for Grasshopper
Grasshopper Gagne Un Plugiciel
Wood Works
Floating a New Idea for Water Stewardship
LACF
Bourses De La FACP
Critique
Parting Shot
Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - INTRO
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover1
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover2
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 5
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 6
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 7
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 9
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Writers
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 11
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 12
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 13
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 14
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Prologue
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 16
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 17
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 18
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 19
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - La Vague
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 21
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - La Pierre Romancée
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 23
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 24
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 25
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 26
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 27
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Riding Technology’s Wild Interface
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 29
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 30
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 31
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 32
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Flooding Fields
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 34
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 35
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Conversation
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 37
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 38
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 39
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 40
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 41
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 42
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Designing Invisible Landscapes
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 44
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 45
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Grasshopper Gagne Un Plugiciel
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 47
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 48
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 49
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 50
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 51
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Wood Works
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 53
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Floating a New Idea for Water Stewardship
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 55
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 56
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 57
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 58
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Bourses De La FACP
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 60
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 61
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Critique
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 63
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 64
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 65
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 66
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 67
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 68
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 69
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 70
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 71
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 72
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 73
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 74
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 75
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 76
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 78
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus1
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