Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 48

CUSTOM TOOL KIT FOR LAs
samolus repeni

olearia solandri

juncus kraussii var. australiensis

avicennia australis

sarcocornia quinqueflora

selliera radicans

plagianthus divaricatus

apodasmia similis

typha orientalis

schoenoplectus tabemaemontani
phormium tenax

baurnea juncea
bolboschoenus
fluviatilis

coprosma tenuicaulis
baumea
rubiginosa

carex secta

90%

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45%

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FIGURE 3

the end points of each path), calculate surface absorption (by
cross-referencing a terrain's permeability), or model pooling
effects (by summing the total expected water volumes in a
given area). In each case the degree of resolution is arbitrary:
capable of working with areas totalling square metres or
square kilometres.
For example, as part of the development process for
the Groundhog plugin, we analysed a river mouth area
in Wellington, New Zealand. Many stretches of the river
bank face erosion and flooding, and the soil contains
pollutants from industrial run-off. The landscape study
itself looked at how to extend a standard set of site data
through parametric analysis to give a more precise
understanding of the local conditions along the river, and to
aid community-led restoration.
Initially, parametric models synthesized existing site data
to create a detailed profile of the public space along the
riverside and shoreline. The first model simulated surface
water flows and projected salinity gradients in water bodies
(Figure 01). In the second, we deployed an algorithm to
create an index of the ground conditions present within
a spatial grid. At each grid point, the model 'sampled' the
given substrate, slope and saturation levels of the soil, and
translated these into a single metric, as measured along a
red-yellow spectra (Figure 02).
This measure then became a valuable guide in deciding how
to develop a planting plan that could help re-vegetate the
river banks and mitigate erosion. This too started in a simple
fashion, with a planting palette represented as a spreadsheet.
In our study area, the appropriate species were already
known. The spatial index became a way to automatically
identify where they would be best distributed, as it allowed
for cross-referencing between species characteristics (slope
or saturation tolerances) and the localised variations within
these conditions at a given point on site. A diagram (Figure
03) represents this process, where each species is classified
against the spatial index given their preferences and their
tolerances. As such it allows for a kind of pseudo-planting
plan to be automatically generated for any given portion of
the site, whereby volunteer planters could easily identify
which species is best suited for each location.
48 LANDSCAPES PAYSAGES

...these models are not
meant to supplant specialist
knowledge, but to allow for
better collaboration between
specialists and designers.

SEEING INTO THE FUTURE
Once set, the model can project how the distribution will look
at a given point in the future, by extrapolating species' growth
rates and mature dimensions. This is useful for visualisation but
it also provides opportunities to explicitly tie planting design
to the project's performance goals, such as by optimising
the selection and distribution of species according to erosion
vulnerability present in particular slope conditions. Similarly,
shading effects could be considered at both ends of the
project, either as a consideration for selection and distribution
(i.e., determining the annual sunlight hours in a given location)
or to simulate outcomes (i.e., the amount of annual sunlight
hours in a mixed seating/planting area).
DESIGNING SYSTEMS THAT EVOLVE
Each of these techniques can be useful enough for
investigating a particular design concern, but it is in their union
(alongside established parametric techniques) that something
more novel can be developed: a more comprehensive
understanding of how a designed landscape, as a series of
evolving and interconnected systems, can perform across
spatial and temporal scales. Models of flooding or sea-level
rise can begin to better tune topographic manipulation or
hardscape design to respond to future contingencies, by
offering fine-tuned projections that consider seasonal tidal
action or longer-term sea-level rises.

FIGURE 3 HOW TO CROSS-REFERENCE A GIVEN PLANTING PALETTE
WITH A SPATIAL MODEL OF SOIL CONDITIONS ACROSS A SITE. EACH
SPECIES IS INDEXED ALONG A RED-YELLOW SPECTRA ACCORDING TO
ITS PREFERENCES (POSITION) AND TOLERANCES (BAR WIDTHS).

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Landscapes - Winter 2017

To Begin With
Une Dernière Salve
Collaborateurs
Writers
Upfront
Prologue
La Vague
Romance of the Stone
La Pierre Romancée
Numériser La Nature
Riding Technology’s Wild Interface
Flooding Fields
Conversation
Designing Invisible Landscapes
Stacking Up - the LA’s Toolkit: A Groundhog Plugin for Grasshopper
Grasshopper Gagne Un Plugiciel
Wood Works
Floating a New Idea for Water Stewardship
LACF
Bourses De La FACP
Critique
Parting Shot
Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - INTRO
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover1
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover2
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 5
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 6
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 7
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 9
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Writers
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 11
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 12
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 13
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 14
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Prologue
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 16
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 17
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 18
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 19
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - La Vague
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 21
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - La Pierre Romancée
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 23
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 24
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 25
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 26
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 27
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Riding Technology’s Wild Interface
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 29
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 30
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 31
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 32
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Flooding Fields
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 34
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 35
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Conversation
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 37
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 38
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 39
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 40
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 41
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 42
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Designing Invisible Landscapes
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 44
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 45
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Grasshopper Gagne Un Plugiciel
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 47
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 48
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 49
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 50
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 51
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Wood Works
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 53
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Floating a New Idea for Water Stewardship
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 55
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 56
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 57
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 58
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Bourses De La FACP
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 60
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 61
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Critique
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 63
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 64
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 65
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 66
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 67
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 68
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 69
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 70
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 71
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 72
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 73
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 74
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 75
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 76
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Une Dernière Salve
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - 78
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - cover4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus1
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus2
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - Lpplus3
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus4
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus5
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus6
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus7
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Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus9
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus10
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus11
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus12
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus13
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus14
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus15
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus16
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus17
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus18
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus19
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus20
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus21
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus22
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus23
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus24
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus25
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus26
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus27
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus28
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus29
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus30
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus31
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus32
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus33
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus34
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus35
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus36
Landscapes - Winter 2017 - LPplus37
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