Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 27

FOCUS

When they possess Qin, landscapes and
gardens, especially, are open and inviting
realms; immersive environments that allow
the total involvement of the users, in body
and in mind, with their senses as well as with
their imaginative power. To achieve Qin,
gardens, for instance, will have continuous,
unending, and in many cases circular spaces
and courses, through which one can get
continuous experiences of ever-changing
settings, situations, atmospheres, sceneries
and so on. This is exactly what traditional
Chinese gardens provide.
Consider for example the Flying Rainbow
Bridge (Photo 2). The void spaces can
be found in different configurations and
combinations with built forms. They allow
people not only to view through the scene,
which exhibits a high degree of permeability,
but also to go through to experience the
complex, differentiated and interconnected
space. A flow of intimate interactions is
established between the visitor, through
his or her own behaviour, and the bridge,
the rocks, trees and water, in all directions,
which is what Qin allows to a high degree.

Qing (情)
In a lively landscape (Qi) that is vividly,
intimately and fully experienced through

all the senses, one can attain Qing, that is,
a feeling of deep fondness and love for the
landscape. When such a feeling is elicited
in his or her very interaction with the
landscape, the visitor is part of a whole that
exceeds the immediate experience. He or
she becomes one with the landscape.
This profound sense of unity goes hand in
hand with a serene and joyous mood, as
if the feeling of fusion with the landscape
overwhelmed one's existence. Thus,
"the fusion of feelings with the natural
setting" (qing jing jiao rong情景交融) is the
highest point of any possible aesthetic
experience of a landscape or a garden, and
the ultimate artistic achievement to be
pursued. As the goal is attained, the artistic
and the idealistic dimensions of landscape
art merge, in a realm of significance (意境)4
where landscape aesthetics and existential
meaning intersect.
In Chinese landscape aesthetics, to infuse
landscape with Qi, to experience it with Qin,
and to feel Qing, is a continuous process
in both experiencing and designing. Such
a process requires both visitors and
designers of gardens and landscapes
to actively and creatively engage with
the natural elements, in keeping with a

long-established aesthetic pursuit that
has persisted from ancient times until
now. A key element of that pursuit is that
it eschews all divisions between human
existence and nature. In life as well as in
actual or represented landscapes, humans
and nature are wholly united and cannot
be separated from the beginning until the
end. Enacting or recovering this unity in a
spirit of deeply felt intimacy with nature is
the highest reward one can get from the
experience of landscapes. It is also the
greatest challenge of artists and designers.
In that respect, Qi, Qin, and Qing can be
regarded as the Three Pillars of Chinese
landscape aesthetics.

Landscape
itself is not
seen as a static
phenomenon
but rather as
the expression
of a living and
dynamic realm.

NOTES AND REFERENCES
1 I chose these three words partly to facilitate
Westerners' understanding. Qi, Qin, and Qing are
easy to recognize and to remember. Ironically, they
also have innate relations in landscape aesthetics,
which I have attempted to show in this article. Is this
purely accidental, or are there any hidden cultural
and linguistic logics within the related sounds and
meanings of these words? The answer to that
question awaits the interpretation of other scholars.
2 This theory was proposed by the ancient art theorist
Xie He (479-502A.D.). See, for example: Liu, C.
Front. The body and its image in classical Chinese
aesthetics. Philos. China (2008) 3: 577. https://doi.
org/10.1007/s11466-008-0036-4.
3 Such concepts can be seen in many art theorists'
works, such as Ji Cheng's (1582-?) famous "Art of
Garden Making". Ji Cheng: Craft of Gardens, Yale
University Press, 1988, Translated by Alison Hardie
ISBN 0-300-04182-9.
4 See Zong Baihua & Jan De Meyer (Translator),
2017, "The Birth of Artistic Conception in
China," Art in Translation, 9:3, 367-396. 

3

WINTER | HIVER 2019 27



Landscapes - Winter 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Landscapes - Winter 2019

TO BEGIN WITH | POUR COMMENCER
WRITERS | NOS RÉDACTEURS
PROLOGUE > FR_ EN_LP
ESSAY | ESSAI LA BEAUTÉ COMME EXPºÉRIENCE
THREE PILLAR CONCEPTS OF CHINESE LANDSCAPE AESTHETICS
LA BEAUTÉ D’UNE INFRASTRUCTURE VIVANTE
SOUS LES ÉTOILES
BEAUTIFUL BOKEH – ACTIVATING THE WINTER LANDSCAPE THROUGH COLOUR
METAMORPHOUS
UNE ÉTRANGE BEAUTÉ
CRITIQUE
I KEEP TAKING THE SAME PHOTO
THE PARTING SHOT | UNE DERNIÈRE SALVE
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - Intro
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - cover1
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - cover2
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 3
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 4
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 5
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 6
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 7
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - TO BEGIN WITH | POUR COMMENCER
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 9
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - WRITERS | NOS RÉDACTEURS
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 11
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 12
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 13
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - PROLOGUE > FR_ EN_LP
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 15
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 16
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 17
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 18
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 19
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - ESSAY | ESSAI LA BEAUTÉ COMME EXPºÉRIENCE
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 21
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 22
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 23
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 24
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - THREE PILLAR CONCEPTS OF CHINESE LANDSCAPE AESTHETICS
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 26
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 27
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LA BEAUTÉ D’UNE INFRASTRUCTURE VIVANTE
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 29
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 30
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 31
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - SOUS LES ÉTOILES
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 33
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - BEAUTIFUL BOKEH – ACTIVATING THE WINTER LANDSCAPE THROUGH COLOUR
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 35
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 36
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 37
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - METAMORPHOUS
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 39
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 40
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 41
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - UNE ÉTRANGE BEAUTÉ
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 43
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 44
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 45
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 46
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 47
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - CRITIQUE
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 49
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - I KEEP TAKING THE SAME PHOTO
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 51
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 52
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 53
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 54
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 55
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 56
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 57
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 58
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 59
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 60
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - 61
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - THE PARTING SHOT | UNE DERNIÈRE SALVE
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - cover3
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - cover4
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus1
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus2
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus3
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus4
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus5
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus6
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus7
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus8
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus9
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus10
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus11
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus12
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus13
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus14
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus15
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus16
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus17
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus18
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus19
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus20
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus21
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus22
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus23
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus24
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus25
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus26
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus27
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus28
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus29
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus30
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus31
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus32
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus33
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus34
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus35
Landscapes - Winter 2019 - LPplus36
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0320
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0220
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0120
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0419
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0319
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0219
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0119
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0418
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0318
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0218
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0118
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0317
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0316
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0315
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0414
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0314
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0413
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0313
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/CSLQ/CSLQ0213
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0113
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CSLQ0311
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com