BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 19

IN THEIR 2014
TECHNOLOGICAL
ROADMAPS FOR SOLAR
PV AND SOLAR THERMAL
ELECTRICITY (STE), THE
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY
AGENCY (IEA) PREDICTS
SOLAR PV AND STE TO
REPRESENT OVER 25%
OF GLOBAL ELECTRICITY
GENERATION BY 2050.
CREDIT: INTERNATIONAL ENERGY
AGENCY
CITATION: VAN DER HOEVEN,
MARIA, "IEA TECHNOLOGY
ROADMAPS FOR SOLAR
ELECTRICITY - 2014 EDITIONS."
PUBLICATION: INTERNATIONAL
ENERGY AGENCY, ONLINE:
HTTPS://WWW.SCRIBD.COM/
DOCUMENT/256403173/140929SOLARROADMAPS-SLIDES

offer at regularly diminishing levels through 2022.
The ITC was renewed and the staged reductions
were established at the end of 2016 with bipartisan
support. However, the future of these credits is
unclear given new House and Senate tax bills. For
businesses, the federal government also allows
Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS)
depreciation of solar PV systems with a special
bonus for certain energy assets through 2019. Local
and state programs across the country offer similar
rebates, tax credits, deductions and performancebased incentives that not only improve the
affordability of solar installation, but also drastically
shorten the payback period. The state of New York
offers upfront cash rebates through NYSERDA and
Solar Renewable Energy Credit programs exist in
eight states plus the District of Columbia.
While state and federal incentives are widely
available now, they are either currently on the decline,
or are planned to be phased out over the next fiveto-ten years. Local policy and incentives will then
become the key to keeping building owners and
residents engaged in continuing solar's growth in urban
environments. Solarize campaigns are locally organized
community outreach efforts that leverage group
purchasing power to encourage homes and businesses
to go solar over an established period of time. Solarize
NYC, one of the largest and most successful campaigns
of its type, is aimed at energizing citizens to take
personal responsibility for the city's goal of reducing
greenhouse gas emissions 80% by 2050.
Urban environments can offer opportunity for
solar, but they also pose significant challenges. Tall
buildings mean a much smaller ratio of available roof
area to conditioned space; there are higher wind loads
on the arrays; and the installation logistics become
significantly more difficult. The close proximity of
other tall buildings, plus roof space being taken up
by bulkheads and large mechanical equipment, often
leads to many sources of shade and a reduction
of usable roof space. Some buildings may have
complicated ownership structures which lead to

greater legal complexities, particularly when it comes
to tax-based incentives.
Because of these challenges, the addition of solar
PV usually offsets only the common area loads of a
large building, not tenant loads. However, it can still
be a financially attractive solution for developers and
property managers: many newly constructed and
renovated city buildings are opting for solar power
even if most of the building's electricity demand
is still supplied by the grid. When combined with
other distributed energy resources, such as energy
storage, energy efficiency and demand management,
distributed solar can also help provide benefits to
the distribution grid. New York State's Renewing
the Energy Vision initiative is seeking to establish
a market for these benefits through its Value of
Distributed Energy Resources program.
From a policy perspective, a city's most immediate
solution would be to update local building codes
to require solar-ready roofs and incorporate other
sustainable best practices. For instance, Cambridge,
MA requires all new construction or existing building
rehabilitation projects over 25,000 SF to meet at
least LEED© Certified or LEED Silver standards; solar
is a popular contributing factor for these standards.
Washington, DC assigns a favorable weight to on-site
renewable energy systems for compliance with its
Green Area Ratio requirements. The 2016 Energy
Conservation Codes for both New York State and New
York City include requirements for solar-ready roofs on
new residential buildings. Similarly, states can adopt
standard permitting and interconnection requirements,
providing greater consistency for installers.
HOW ARE BUILDINGS DESIGNED FOR OPTIMUM
PV PERFORMANCE?
A number of simple steps can be taken to optimize
for solar when designing buildings for an urban
environment. The roof should be designed to provide
the greatest amount of roof space and least amount
of shading for the solar array. Designing a building with
unitized ventilation (i.e. in-line fans) eliminates the
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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018

From the Executive Director
From the Board Chair
Product Choices for High-Performing Building: Materials Matter
Designing Solar for High-Density Areas
High Performance Building Valuation Techniques
Starting with the End in Mind: Enhanced Turnover for Efficient Building Operations
Behavior Based Strategies and Organizational Change in Commercial & Public Buildings: The Human Component of Energy Efficiency
Commercial HVAC Retrofits That Work
Stretch Codes Emerge as a High Impact Strategy For Energy Savings
Scale it Up: Monitoring-Based Demand-Side Operations for NYC Agencies
The Retrofit Revolution
Index to Advertisers
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - intro
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - cover1
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - cover2
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 3
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 4
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 5
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - From the Executive Director
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 7
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 8
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 9
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - From the Board Chair
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 11
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Product Choices for High-Performing Building: Materials Matter
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 13
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 14
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 15
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 16
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 17
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Designing Solar for High-Density Areas
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 19
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 20
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 21
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - High Performance Building Valuation Techniques
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 23
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 24
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 25
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Starting with the End in Mind: Enhanced Turnover for Efficient Building Operations
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 27
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 28
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 29
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 30
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Behavior Based Strategies and Organizational Change in Commercial & Public Buildings: The Human Component of Energy Efficiency
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 32
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 33
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 34
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 35
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Commercial HVAC Retrofits That Work
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 37
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 38
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 39
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 40
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Stretch Codes Emerge as a High Impact Strategy For Energy Savings
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 42
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 43
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 44
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Scale it Up: Monitoring-Based Demand-Side Operations for NYC Agencies
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 46
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 47
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 48
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 49
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 50
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - The Retrofit Revolution
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - insert1
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - insert2
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 52
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 53
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 54
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 55
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 56
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 57
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 58
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 59
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - Index to Advertisers
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 61
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - 62
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - cover3
BUILDING ENERGY - Spring 2018 - cover4
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