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about a company and they need to make decisions and take action to respond to the situation and solve problems (Fossum 1990, 142). The participants then apply what they have learned to a second role playing simulation, after they receive feedback from the trainers. Another example of off-site training involves wilderness training. Fossum (1990, 143) describes such training as one where teams go into the wilderness where they confront challenges with the aid of trainers. Such activities may include mountain climbing, rappelling off cliffs, etc. These activities initiate team building because the participants must work together as a team to overcome obstacles. It is argued that if a team learns to work together on such physical tasks, that learning will be transferred to their work situation (Fossum 1990, 143). Peer-to-peer Training Peer-to-peer training is a type of team learning and teambuilding. Peer-to-peer training within an organization is developed by first training a few key employees on how to become facilitators. Then these employees train their peers and so on. Depending on the subject matter of the training, videos may accompany the trained facilitator to help in explaining technical issues. The important aspect of this training is to get peers to train each other, to facilitate each other's development, to eventually lead to cross-functional brainstorming and the exploration and exchange of ideas. Cusimano (1996, 32) proposes to begin peer-to-peer training within an organization at the management level, because once managers have experienced the power of such training and its effectiveness, it becomes a driving force within the organization. The following is an example of anecdotal evidence that supports the impact of peerto-peer learning: At Orkin Exterminating Company, 24 sales managers were trained to be facilitators in a three-day seminar. Then, they trained 2,000 sales representatives. Larry Spruill, vice-president of sales, says that the training led to a 10 percent improvement in sales-staff retention, number of contracts, and sales closing. (Cusimano 1996, 32) Multi-team Training Multi-team training is the gathering of several teams from the same organization in a conference-like setting, where there are general training sessions given collectively to all the teams and then the teams break up into their separate teams to practice the development of the new skills presented (Varney 1990, 126). Varney suggests that multi-team training within an organization can be effective because "the collective training can promote mutual understanding, a shared vocabulary, and a common direction, thereby enhancing and reinforcing the culture when teams return to their work environment" (1990, 127). Furthermore, he argues that it demonstrates to the employees the strong commitment the organization has to aid the employees in improving their performance as teams. Self-directed Learning Self-directed learning is another method of training for teams. Hatcher defines selfdirected learning as "a process in which trainees take responsibility for their own learning, including diagnosing needs, developing objectives, designing learning experiences, finding resources, and evaluating learning outcomes" (1997, 36). In the context of a team, self-directed learning is built into the team process with a series of learning objectives that are performed by the team. This method of team learning is believed to enhance the acquisition of skills, as well as strengthen the team. Although self-directed learning can offer a deep level of learning by building on an individual's knowledge and skills, Hatcher (1997, 36) recognizes its challenges and limitations; not all individuals are comfortable with this type of learning and just because goals and objectives are set it does not mean that the individual will reach them. As a result, the role of the trainer is still vital to the success of the learning. With self-directed learning the trainer must take on more of a facilitator role rather than a teacher role (Hatcher 1997, 36). Some examples of what facilitators must know and gain as competencies, as suggested by Hatcher (1997, 38), include: "how adults acquire and use skills, knowledge and attitudes; how to apply different learning styles; how to offer feedback on a timely basis; how to establish positive, workable relationships across a broad spectrum of people and groups; how to build cohesive, viable work teams and self-directed groups; how to coach individuals and groups." O References Cusimano, J.E. 1996. Managers as facilitators. Training & Development 50 (September): 31-3. Fossum, J.A. 1990. New dimensions in the design and delivery of corporate training programs. In New developments in worker training: A legacy for the 1990s. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association. Harrington-Mackin, D. 1994. The team building tool kit: Tips, tactics, and rules for effective workplace teams. New York: New Directions Management Services. Hatcher, T.G. 1997. The ins and outs of self-directed learning. Training & Development 51 (February): 35-9. Varney, G.H. 1990. Building productive teams: An action guide and resource book. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Chantal de la Rochelle is currently the Director of Human Resources-Challenger and Organizational Development for Business Aircraft-Bombardier Aerospace. She has a Master of Industrial Relations degree from Queen's University. This article was originally published by Queen's University IRC in 1999. HUMAN CAPITAL | FALL 2016 | 27

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016

Leadership Matters
Tech Talk
The Evolution of Learning & Development: Trends Today
The Value of Leadership Development and What Companies Are Spending on Training and Development
Knowledge Transfer Strategies
Instructional Design Focused on Performance Support
Joint Training: Learning on Both Sides of the Fence
Team Training: A Brief Look at the Options
Training Needs: Ask the Right Experts
What’s Your End Game?
Legal Source
Policy Corner
Peek-a-Boo, Pikachu: Pokémon Go Could Transform Learning
Index of Advertisers/
HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - cover1
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - 6
HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Leadership Matters
HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - 8
HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Tech Talk
HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - The Evolution of Learning & Development: Trends Today
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - 12
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - The Value of Leadership Development and What Companies Are Spending on Training and Development
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Knowledge Transfer Strategies
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Instructional Design Focused on Performance Support
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Joint Training: Learning on Both Sides of the Fence
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Team Training: A Brief Look at the Options
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Training Needs: Ask the Right Experts
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - What’s Your End Game?
HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Legal Source
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Policy Corner
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Peek-a-Boo, Pikachu: Pokémon Go Could Transform Learning
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HUMAN Capital - Fall 2016 - Index of Advertisers/
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