IIE Network - Spring 2014 - (Page 28)

FEATURE: THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION Globalized Internationalization: Implications for Policy and Practice By Elspeth Jones and Hans de Wit ATTENTION TO THE international dimension of higher education is increasingly visible as national and institutional agendas rise to the challenge of globalization and seize its opportunities. Yet, in the current global knowledge society, the concept of internationalization of higher education has itself become globalized, demanding further consideration of its impact on policy and practice as more countries and types of institution around the world engage in the process. Internationalization should no longer be considered in terms of a westernized, largely Anglo-Saxon, and predominantly Englishspeaking paradigm. Global competition for talent, growing complexity in cross-border activity, branch campuses, and the creation of global professionals and citizens are now high on the agenda, not only of international educators but also of university presidents, associations of universities, politicians, and other key players in higher education around the world. Notions of importing and exporting countries are being turned upside down as students choose study destinations in countries that have traditionally sent more students than they have hosted. Global mobility flows are increasingly complex, offering new opportunities for those able and willing to access them. At the same time, other countries are emerging as key players and beginning to challenge the dominance of western discourse on internationalization. Alongside rising student demand for study overseas, the globalization of working practices and environments are reflected in increasing expectations of employers for cross-culturally capable graduates, ideally with international experience, to meet these demands. In countries where internationalization has been around for some time, the head start in itself can become a handicap resulting in a lack of innovation. They tend to stick to established models and activities that are primarily focused on internationalization abroad (study abroad, recruitment of international students, exchanges). As more countries attract inbound students and open up to internationalization, new and different 28 perspectives and issues for consideration will emerge. These new dimensions of internationalization are likely to alter the landscape of internationalization, including its western, neo-colonial characteristics. In 2012 we wrote that, "a globalized interpretation of internationalization requires a more nuanced approach to its delivery than has hitherto been the case" (Jones and de Wit 2012, 39) and suggested a range of factors that needed to be taken into account, including: * Geographical variation in social and economic needs resulting in differentiated local and regional responses. * Ethical issues in global engagement and sustainability of practice. * The importance of careful consideration of the local context and culture when engaging in cross-border activity. (Jones and de Wit 2012, 39) While some argue that, "in higher education and knowledge we can detect a continuing long-term trend to global convergence and integration" (Marginson 2013, 49), we must remember that "the notion of 'internationalization' is not only a question of the relations between nations but even more to the relations between cultures and between the global and the local" (de Wit 2012). Indeed, "under the impact of accelerating globalization ... a new paradigm of international education might emerge that is both more threatening and more helpful" (Scott 2013, 55). Just as the emphasis on global perspectives for students should be a key theme, so the globalization of internationalization itself requires us to consider the responsibilities of western universities if we are not to see internationalization as exploitative or as a "slave trade in education" (Jegede 2012). In addition to the benefits, there is increasing awareness of the risks internationalization may bring, ...brain-drain, cultural homogenization, competition among higher education institutions as well as increased commercialization continues to be attributed as possible consequences of higher education internationalization. They are seen by some as the risks of In countries where internationalization has been around for some time, the head start in itself can become a handicap resulting in a lack of innovation. internationalization, by others as collateral damage of the process. (Egron-Polak 2012) Yet the 'business' of international education still seems to predominate. Wilson argues that, "internationalization is an increasingly important strategic priority not only for institutions but also for governments, which are increasingly aware of the importance of universities in supporting national and regional competitiveness" (Wilson 2013, 30). In one respect this may be seen as a good thing, but there are also less positive results of this focus. Cross-border education is lauded for its institutional financial benefits rather than transformational potential for students and faculty, or, as Ritzen calls it, "internationalization of the mind" (Ritzen 2013). Only infrequently do institutions enter into dialogue with employers about how international and multicultural experiences enhance the employability of graduating students (Jones 2013a). The creation of an international branch campus is too often valued for enhancing institutional status or improving the bottom line rather than as a valuable resource for student engagement and understanding. International partners can be chosen for their quality indices rather than for the genuine sharing of knowledge which can result. University management often prioritizes international league tables over internationalization of the curriculum. Institutional reports, which measure how many students have studied abroad rather than what they have learned from doing so, underestimate the value of such activity. In short, as argued by Jones, "Too few university leaders have yet grasped the potential of www.iie.org/iienetworker http://www.iie.org/iienetworker

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IIE Network - Spring 2014

A Message from Allan E. Goodman
News
2014 IIE Andrew Heiskell Awards for Innovation in International Education
An Interview with Torbjørn Røe Isaksen, Minister of Education and Research, Government of Norway
Introduction to the Globalization of International Education
Internationalization as Acquisitions, Mergers, and Synergy: A Value-Based Framework of Internationalization
Globalized Internationalization: Implications for Policy and Practice
Advocating the Value of Experiential Learning in the Age of Globalization
The Translocal Urban Nexus in International Education: Trinity College in China and Southeast Asia
Mission Apt: Evolving Strategies for Global Student Recruitment
Global Research Networks: Experiments in Internationalization
Two Models of Global Learning
Advertisers Index
Final Thought: Fostering Global Research Capacity Through Multilateral Partnerships: The Global Innovation Initiative

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