JED - February 2017 - 43

Operator 101
ports could then give additional information on request, or on
a regular basis.
For political level (and also for the G5 domain), the organizational view and a view of entities and events is required to
understand the relationships between different entities. Such
reports, however, require manual work and cannot be fully automated. A simple list view is required for intelligence staff
to get insights into what has happened from a technical and
operational perspective.

We will discuss the Evaluation Operators (Translators, Network Evaluators, Technical Analysts, etc.) in a future article.
A short note, however, is that lots of added value comes out of
their work. On the other hand, they need a comparably huge
amount of time to perform these tasks. To make their results
relevant in a tactical environment, they either focus on generating knowledge for situations that teach the system for future automatic detection, or to find insights
with the help of smart tools that allow the
presentation of findings in-time for the tactical situation.

Generating individually adapted, comprehensive and regular EOB reports for higher echelons by summarizing, aggregating and correlating results collected by the system should be a
standard in supporting numerous requirements from different
recipients of such reports. It should also be possible to generate regionally-limited reports, reports covering different subsets of results, as well as global reports containing all available
In the context of tactical and mobile/distributed intelligence systems, synchronization of large amounts of data can
be a challenge. In many cases, the existing network connection is not fast enough to allow for the real-time transfer of all
data between remote or unmanned signal collection sites and
a signal collection center. Also, latencies within data transfer
links can be a problem. Nevertheless, collected data must be
complete, reliable and available to provide comprehensive situational reports.

While traditional and symmetric scenarios might provide the time to generate Electronic Order of Battle (EOB) pictures within
days or hours, modern hybrid scenarios in
crisis situations require the instant provision of EOB for the responsible commander
at any time. So, besides providing as much
data and information at any given time, a
degree of certainty has to be given along
with the information. This means that if
data has not been validated with respect
to fast provision, the degree of certainty
should be obvious for decision makers.
A simple classification could be a "traffic light," with a green color representing absolutely-certain
information that can be completely trusted, a yellow color indicating near-certain information where a degree of caution
should be taken into consideration, and a red color representing unvalidated data with no degree of certainty.
A location fix derived automatically from an RF directionfinding (DF) system might be green even if no operator has
validated it. It may have been validated automatically after
repeating the location calculation several times within a few
Also, the timing and consistency of the intelligence data
should be taken into consideration. For example, if a loss of
communication has occurred, the situation may have changed
and, in such situations, all data and information should temporarily switch to at least yellow to show that the data consistency is currently not guaranteed.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | February 2017




To provide the necessary benefit to commanders on a tactical level, modern intelligence systems and operators will have
to provide reports based on instant access to their data, even
if it is not validated and not fully certain. To realize this, they
need the ability to define simple and understandable levels of
certainty for the commander's decision making process.
Additionally, traditional intelligence reports have to be
provided on a regular basis. And, because from these reports
intelligence forces will build their reputation and generate
greater trust in their results, they should be both complete
and at a high level of certainty.
To cover large areas, especially in asymmetric situations, an
intelligence sensor network approach might be beneficial. a
For comments and suggestions,
Michael Niewohner can be reached at


JED - February 2017

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - February 2017

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
Asia-Pacific SIGINT Programs
Technology Survey: Analog-to-Digital Converters
Operator 101
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick LookThe
JED - February 2017 - cover1
JED - February 2017 - cover2
JED - February 2017 - 3
JED - February 2017 - 4
JED - February 2017 - 5
JED - February 2017 - The View From Here
JED - February 2017 - 7
JED - February 2017 - Conferences Calendar
JED - February 2017 - 9
JED - February 2017 - Courses Calendar
JED - February 2017 - 11
JED - February 2017 - From the President
JED - February 2017 - 13
JED - February 2017 - 14
JED - February 2017 - The Monitor
JED - February 2017 - insert1
JED - February 2017 - insert2
JED - February 2017 - 16
JED - February 2017 - 17
JED - February 2017 - 18
JED - February 2017 - 19
JED - February 2017 - 20
JED - February 2017 - 21
JED - February 2017 - World Report
JED - February 2017 - 23
JED - February 2017 - Asia-Pacific SIGINT Programs
JED - February 2017 - 25
JED - February 2017 - 26
JED - February 2017 - 27
JED - February 2017 - 28
JED - February 2017 - 29
JED - February 2017 - 30
JED - February 2017 - 31
JED - February 2017 - Technology Survey: Analog-to-Digital Converters
JED - February 2017 - 33
JED - February 2017 - 34
JED - February 2017 - 35
JED - February 2017 - 36
JED - February 2017 - 37
JED - February 2017 - 38
JED - February 2017 - 39
JED - February 2017 - 40
JED - February 2017 - Operator 101
JED - February 2017 - 42
JED - February 2017 - 43
JED - February 2017 - EW 101
JED - February 2017 - 45
JED - February 2017 - AOC News
JED - February 2017 - 47
JED - February 2017 - 48
JED - February 2017 - Index of Advertisers
JED - February 2017 - JED Quick LookThe
JED - February 2017 - cover3
JED - February 2017 - cover4