JED - April 2014 - 32

The Journal of Electronic Defense | April 2014


electromagnetic pulse, and any other
weaponizable application of radiant EM
energy. Other Spectrum Warfare applications include traditional electronic
attack (i.e., "jamming"), emerging modes
of electronic attack, any manner of electromagnetic collection capabilities (prior
to intelligence processing), as well as
technology developments which protect
personnel, facilities and equipment from
the effects of, or targeting by, radiant
electromagnetic energy.
For the first time in the history of
warfare, peer and non-peer adversaries
alike will intend as their initial posture to
execute broad spectrum denial against us,
as a simple yet cost-effective strategy for
denying us the "oxygen" upon which we
have become so precariously dependent.
This risk extends across communications,
data links, UAVs, C2, satnav (GPS), ISR,
cross-domain interconnectivity, as well as
any other EMS-dependent - and therefore
vulnerable - system or architecture. The
radiant electromagnetic energy of the
EMS is the ultimate currency of exchange,
the new ether of combat, and the very
"oxygen" of the battle space, without
which any of our inter-relational or network-centric operations would even be
allowed to occur. Balancing the converging operational stressors of friendly EMS
congestion and hostile EMS contest, we
must accept the counterintuitive truth
that pursuit of coherence across our EMSdependent operations and capabilities
development has become more significant than our dogmatic pursuit of nonfederated capabilities, no matter how
elegant or expensive each may individually be. The EMS is a fundamental feature
of, and a strategic national resource for,
national defense, civil infrastructure,
and international commerce. Sovereign
and non-state adversaries alike will challenge the EMS in the interests of inducing instability, disruption, asymmetric
cost-imposing effects and anti-access/
area-denial stressors. Doctrine is now
evolving to capitalize on the physical
and functional overlap in responsibilities between EW and spectrum management to comprise a future-proof cadre
for Joint EMS Operations (JEMSO). This
shift will reduce inefficiencies and consolidate expert human capital in pursuit
of increasingly vital EMS control.

For the first time in
the history of warfare,
peer and non-peer
adversaries alike will
intend as their initial
posture to execute
broad spectrum denial
against us...
Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum
Operations (JEMSO) are defined as "those
activities consisting of Electronic Warfare
and Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum
Management Operations used to exploit,
attack, protect, and manage electromagnetic operational environments to achieve
the commander's objectives" (JP 1-02). By
definition, JEMSO does not include Cyber
Operations (CO), SIGINT or other activities
as organic components, since only EW
and Spectrum Management (SM) share
a 100 percent commitment to (and are
never distracted from) the operational
responsibility for causing EMS control.
Assertions of convergence in this context
are misplaced. Control of energy (JEMSO)
and control of data (CO) remain two distinct mission areas to be integrated in
a combined arms framework including
all four of the fundamental operational
responsibilities: controlling ideas, energy,
data, and mass. Use of COTS technologies
does not signal convergence, it signals
data and energy integration in the same
way that hydrogen and oxygen integrate
to make water, while each retains a very
valuable identity and purpose in its own
right. After all, as valuable as water
is, without hydrogen the earth would
become dark and, without oxygen life
would become dull.

Due to the relatively longstanding
use of the term, "EWBM" (Electronic
Warfare Battle Management), and the
recent but gradual introduction of the
term, "EMBM," into the lexicon, the
terms are often used interchangeably,
although each maintains a useful and
complementary purpose. Electromagnetic
Battle Management (EMBM) is defined as

"the dynamic monitoring, assessing, planning, and directing of Joint Electromagnetic
Spectrum Operations in support of the commander's scheme of maneuver." EWBM, a
dedicated capability for EW coordination
and deconfliction among forces, Services
and capabilities, is still required due to
the complexity and scope of a given
operation. EMBM would begin with the
results of that level of management and
include integral spectrum management
equities (to make JEMSO) as well as the
addition of dedicated SIGINT support. In
this cumulative model, EWBM can produce periods of tactical superiority, while
higher level EMBM activity can result in
spectrum control.
Spectrum is the singular unifying
physical entity across nations, Services,
agencies, Title 10 portfolios and Title 50
responsibilities and, as mentioned earlier, the oxygen of modern warfighting.
With decades of "lessons learned" and
interference reports, we have achieved
two inescapable realizations: a) anything that operates in the EMS (communicates, senses, conceals or attacks)
must be coherently managed, and b) the
only way to execute each of these responsibilities well is to plan to do them all
together. The inevitable outcome is that
EMS access, availability or use may no
longer be assumed; the infinite EMS is no
longer an unlimited resource for military
operations. The active protection and
offensive use of radiant EM energy must
be deliberately advocated, resourced and
included in the calculus and strategies
of future warfighting and capability
development. In our increasingly complex
and dynamic electromagnetic operating
environments (EMOE), only cost-effective
solutions will achieve the required balance of effectiveness and sustainability.
Those cost-effective solutions will in turn
increasingly depend upon elevated and
empowered science and technology (S&T)
development and acquisition governance,
ideally provided by authorities at the
OSD level.

Spectrum warfare demands a shift
from electronics-focused thinking to
radiant energy-focused thinking. In
our technology acquisition, we must


JED - April 2014

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - April 2014

The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Interview: Rich Sorelle
The Electromagnetic Battle Management (EMBM) Challenge
Technology Survey: Radar Jammers
Show Preview: EW Europe 2014
The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - April 2014 - cover1
JED - April 2014 - cover2
JED - April 2014 - 3
JED - April 2014 - 4
JED - April 2014 - 5
JED - April 2014 - The View From Here
JED - April 2014 - 7
JED - April 2014 - Conferences Calendar
JED - April 2014 - 9
JED - April 2014 - Courses Calendar
JED - April 2014 - 11
JED - April 2014 - From the President
JED - April 2014 - 13
JED - April 2014 - 14
JED - April 2014 - The Monitor
JED - April 2014 - 16
JED - April 2014 - 17
JED - April 2014 - 18
JED - April 2014 - 19
JED - April 2014 - 20
JED - April 2014 - 21
JED - April 2014 - 22
JED - April 2014 - 23
JED - April 2014 - Washington Report
JED - April 2014 - 25
JED - April 2014 - World Report
JED - April 2014 - 27
JED - April 2014 - Interview: Rich Sorelle
JED - April 2014 - 29
JED - April 2014 - The Electromagnetic Battle Management (EMBM) Challenge
JED - April 2014 - 31
JED - April 2014 - 32
JED - April 2014 - 33
JED - April 2014 - 34
JED - April 2014 - 35
JED - April 2014 - 36
JED - April 2014 - 37
JED - April 2014 - 38
JED - April 2014 - 39
JED - April 2014 - 40
JED - April 2014 - Technology Survey: Radar Jammers
JED - April 2014 - 42
JED - April 2014 - 43
JED - April 2014 - 44
JED - April 2014 - 45
JED - April 2014 - 46
JED - April 2014 - Show Preview: EW Europe 2014
JED - April 2014 - 48
JED - April 2014 - 49
JED - April 2014 - 50
JED - April 2014 - EW 101
JED - April 2014 - 52
JED - April 2014 - 53
JED - April 2014 - AOC News
JED - April 2014 - 55
JED - April 2014 - 56
JED - April 2014 - Index of Advertisers
JED - April 2014 - JED Quick Look
JED - April 2014 - cover3
JED - April 2014 - cover4