JED - April 2016 - 35

Threat Monitor

Russia Deploys Latest-Generation
Hardware to Syria
By Doug Richardson

Behind these launch tubes for the S-400 system's vertically-launched
missiles can be seen the angled passive array of the 92N6 "Grave
Stone" fire-control radar.
(Russian Ministry of Defence)

defense (SHORAD) systems to be deployed close to its S-400
batteries in order to provide point defense against attack by
conventional weapons, including cruise missiles. So it was
hardly surprising that TV reports of the Syrian deployment
showed the presence of the shorter-ranged system.
Videos released by the Russian Ministry of Defence
showed the presence of a standard Pantsir-S1, but a news
report by Russia's RT television channel revealed that a new
Pantsir version was also at Hmeimim. Pantsir-S1 uses an
S-band 2RL80 surveillance radar to cue the 1RS2-1 Schlem
millimetric-wave multifunction tracking radar and 1TPP1
optronic systems that direct the turret-mounted 2A38M 30mm cannon and 57E6 missiles. On the new system, which
is probably designated Pantsir-S2, the 2RL80 has been replaced by a new radar fitted with two electronically scanned
antennas mounted back-to-back.
Another measure taken in response to the loss of the
Su-24 was to improve the air-to-air missile capability of the
Russian aircraft operating from Hmeimim. On November 30,
Sukhoi Su-34 "Fullback" strike aircraft operating over Syria
were reported to have added R-73 (AA-11 "Archer") shortrange and R-27 (AA-10 "Alamo") medium-range air-to-air
missiles to their armament.
A number of Su-30SM fighters had been operational at
Hmeimim since early October. These seemed to be armed
with R-77 (AA-12 "Adder") air-to-air missiles. TV news reports showed brief glimpses of these missiles, and allowed
these to be identified as the basic R-77 model, and not the
latest R-77-1 version.
The deployment to Syria of four Sukhoi Su-35S "FlankerE" multirole fighter aircraft - the most modern fighters in
Russian Air Force service -was confirmed by the Russian
Ministry of Defence on February 1. Spokesman Major Gen-

The Journal of Electronic Defense | April 2016


he downing of a Russian Air Force Su-24 on November
24, 2015, by an air-to-air missile fired from a Turkish
Air Force F-16 led Russia to deploy advanced surface-to-air missile systems to western Syria.
Already operating off the Syrian coast, the Slava-class
cruiser Moskva was ordered to move closer to Latakia following the shootdown. From this location, its MP-100 Flag
and MR-710M Fregat-M surveillance radars and S-300F Fort
surface-to-air missiles would provide better defensive coverage for Russian Air Force operations in Syria.
The first components of an Almaz-Antey S-400 battery
were airlifted into Hmeimim airbase south-east of the Syrian city of Latakia on November 26. Used as an operating
base by Russian forces, Hmeimim (sometimes transliterated
as Hmeymin or Khmeimim) shares some airfield facilities
with Latakia's Bassel Al-Assad International Airport.
In its basic form, an S-400 battery consists of a 55K6 command post, a 91N6 "Big Bird" surveillance radar, up to six
92N6 "Grave Stone" fire-control radars, and up to 12 5P85TE or
5P85SE launchers, each armed with four missiles. A 96L6 acquisition radar operating in the 4- to 8-GHz band is optional.
The "Grave Stone" operates in the 8- to 12.5-GHz band.
It is similar in general configuration to the earlier 5N63
"Flap Lid" and 30N6 ("Tomb Stone") used by the older S-300
(SA-10 "Grumble" or SA-20 "Gargoyle") systems. As in these
earlier radars, the antenna is a passive phased array illuminated by a TWT-based transmitter. Maximum range against
a fighter-sized target is thought to be around 350 km. It can
maintain tracks on up to 40 targets simultaneously, and it
can engage up to 10 targets simultaneously.
The S-400 system was designed to use legacy missile
rounds developed for use with variants of the earlier S-300
family of systems. It is normally armed with versions of the
48N6 missile. The version used for the Syrian deployment
is thought to be the 48N6DM, which has a maximum range
of 250 km.
In a 2008 article in the Russian language VozdushnoKosmicheskaya Oborona magazine authored by Dr. Alexander
Lemanskiy, Chief Engineer on the S-400; Igor Ashurbeili,
General Director; and Nikolai Nenartovich, Chief Engineer
(all from Almaz-Antey), the authors stated that the system
was designed to survive in an environment where threats to
its existence were posed by theater-range ballistic missiles
and by precision-guided munitions.
In practice however, current Russian military doctrine
calls for KBP Pantsir (SA-22 "Greyhound") short-range air



JED - April 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - April 2016

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
DARPA Profile: Advanced Materials
Mission Profile: Non-Kinetic Thinking Creates New Possibilities for Air and Missile Defense
Threat Monitor
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - April 2016 - cover1
JED - April 2016 - cover2
JED - April 2016 - 3
JED - April 2016 - 4
JED - April 2016 - 5
JED - April 2016 - The View From Here
JED - April 2016 - 7
JED - April 2016 - Conferences Calendar
JED - April 2016 - 9
JED - April 2016 - Courses Calendar
JED - April 2016 - 11
JED - April 2016 - From the President
JED - April 2016 - 13
JED - April 2016 - 14
JED - April 2016 - The Monitor
JED - April 2016 - 16
JED - April 2016 - 17
JED - April 2016 - 18
JED - April 2016 - 19
JED - April 2016 - 20
JED - April 2016 - 21
JED - April 2016 - 22
JED - April 2016 - World Report
JED - April 2016 - DARPA Profile: Advanced Materials
JED - April 2016 - 25
JED - April 2016 - 26
JED - April 2016 - 27
JED - April 2016 - Mission Profile: Non-Kinetic Thinking Creates New Possibilities for Air and Missile Defense
JED - April 2016 - 29
JED - April 2016 - 30
JED - April 2016 - 31
JED - April 2016 - 32
JED - April 2016 - 33
JED - April 2016 - 34
JED - April 2016 - Threat Monitor
JED - April 2016 - 36
JED - April 2016 - EW 101
JED - April 2016 - 38
JED - April 2016 - AOC News
JED - April 2016 - 40
JED - April 2016 - Index of Advertisers
JED - April 2016 - JED Quick Look
JED - April 2016 - cover3
JED - April 2016 - cover4