JED - May 2013 - 49

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2013

49
driven convergence between warfighting domains because physical environments cannot converge. Did the
development of the aircraft carrier in
the last century mean the naval and
air environments were converging
because we were flying planes from
ships? Obviously not. Even though
military aviation was a relatively new
idea at the time, the Air and Sea domains were understood well enough
for military leaders to know that the
two could not form one continuous
Air-Sea environment just because of
technological innovation.
Or try looking at the putative Cyber-EM convergence theory in another
way. If we take the cyber and EM technologies out of the equation, is the
term “convergence” a good description of the Cyber-EM relationship? It
is worth noting that no one in the DOD
was arguing that the cyber and EM
environments formed one continuous
environment until after wireless data
communications and software-defined
radars and radios started to appear in
the battlespace.

CYBER SYSTEMS ARE BECOMING
MORE DEPENDENT ON THE EMS
If cyber and EM convergence isn’t
really what is happening, then what is
happening between cyberspace and the
EM environment? To answer that question, let’s look at some historical examples in naval warfare.
During the early part of the last century, we began developing technologies
that enabled our weapons systems to
exploit the EM environment. In naval
warfare, for example, ships began using
radios before World War II. Then radars
came into use. In the 1950’s, we developed RF- and IR-guided missiles. Soon
afterward, we developed electronic warfare systems to detect and defeat RFand IR-guided anti-ship missiles. Ships
then began to use satellites for navigation, weapons targeting and data communications. IFF systems evolved, too.
What was happening was simple: ships
– and by extension, naval warfare – was
becoming more dependent on the EM environment. Yet no one was arguing that
the naval environment was “converging” with the EM environment.

For the past 100 years, the same
trends have been emerging in other
warfighting environments. Air warfare
has become dependent on the EM environment. Land warfare has become dependent on the EM environment. Space
operations are extremely dependent
on the EM environment. Throughout
this period of growing EM dependence,
no DOD leader has characterized this
trend as “convergence” or called for a
single Air-EM environment or Space-EM
domain.
Now, let’s look at cyber warfare. Over
the past decade, cyber networks have
become increasingly dependent on access to the EM environment, as they
evolved from “wired” to “wireless” architectures. Like the other warfighting
environments, this EM dependence is
the true essence of the Cyber-EM relationship. It is worth noting here that
while cyber operations are becoming
more dependent on access to the EM
environment, the opposite is not true.
Most of the systems and devices that
use the EM environment, as well as the
EW systems that provide EM control,


http://www.CROWS.ORG

JED - May 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - May 2013

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
Letters
The Monitor
The Monitor
The Long Hard Road – EW’s Future in Europe
Technology Survey: Signal Generators
Two Domains Are Better Than One
Preview: AOC 50th Anniversary
EW 101
Book Review
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - May 2013 - cover1
JED - May 2013 - cover2
JED - May 2013 - 3
JED - May 2013 - 4
JED - May 2013 - 5
JED - May 2013 - The View From Here
JED - May 2013 - 7
JED - May 2013 - Conferences Calendar
JED - May 2013 - 9
JED - May 2013 - Courses Calendar
JED - May 2013 - 11
JED - May 2013 - From the President
JED - May 2013 - 13
JED - May 2013 - Letters
JED - May 2013 - The Monitor
JED - May 2013 - 16
JED - May 2013 - 17
JED - May 2013 - 18
JED - May 2013 - 19
JED - May 2013 - 20
JED - May 2013 - 21
JED - May 2013 - 22
JED - May 2013 - 23
JED - May 2013 - 24
JED - May 2013 - 25
JED - May 2013 - The Monitor
JED - May 2013 - 27
JED - May 2013 - The Long Hard Road – EW’s Future in Europe
JED - May 2013 - 29
JED - May 2013 - 30
JED - May 2013 - 31
JED - May 2013 - 32
JED - May 2013 - 33
JED - May 2013 - 34
JED - May 2013 - 35
JED - May 2013 - 36
JED - May 2013 - 37
JED - May 2013 - 38
JED - May 2013 - 39
JED - May 2013 - 40
JED - May 2013 - Technology Survey: Signal Generators
JED - May 2013 - 42
JED - May 2013 - 43
JED - May 2013 - 44
JED - May 2013 - 45
JED - May 2013 - 46
JED - May 2013 - 47
JED - May 2013 - Two Domains Are Better Than One
JED - May 2013 - 49
JED - May 2013 - 50
JED - May 2013 - 51
JED - May 2013 - Preview: AOC 50th Anniversary
JED - May 2013 - 53
JED - May 2013 - 54
JED - May 2013 - EW 101
JED - May 2013 - 56
JED - May 2013 - 57
JED - May 2013 - 58
JED - May 2013 - Book Review
JED - May 2013 - 60
JED - May 2013 - AOC News
JED - May 2013 - 62
JED - May 2013 - 63
JED - May 2013 - 64
JED - May 2013 - Index of Advertisers
JED - May 2013 - JED Quick Look
JED - May 2013 - cover3
JED - May 2013 - cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0318
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0218
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0118
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0917
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0817
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0617
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0517
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0317
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0916
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0816
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0616
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0516
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0316
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0915
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0815
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0615
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0515
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0315
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1014
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0914
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0814
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0714
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0614
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0514
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0414
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0314
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1213
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1113
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1013
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0913
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0813
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0713
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0613
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0513
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0413
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0313
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0213
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0113
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0908
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com