JED - June 2014 - 22

By Martin Streetly

The Journal of Electronic Defense | June 2014

22

When what is now the AOC held its first
convention on September 8, 1964, the
world was a dangerous place. Nineteen
years earlier, World War II had ended,
to be followed by an armistice that
terminated the Korean War eight years
after that. Closer in time, the three
years between 1961 and 1964 had seen
the Bay of Pigs disaster, the Cuban
Missile Crisis, the assassination of JFK
and, in August 1964, the Tonkin Gulf
Incident that launched America into
the "heart of darkness" that was to become the Vietnam War. In this fevered
Cold War atmosphere, few outside the
intelligence world had any knowledge
of what the acronym SIGINT meant, let
alone how and by whom it was being
practiced. Indeed, it was to be close
to another 30 years before the "dark
art" of collecting intelligence from the
electromagnetic spectrum would become a relatively familiar element of
military operations.
Back in September 1964, airborne
SIGINT was a fairly exclusive club with
the air arms of Britain, France, Russia,
Sweden and the US all fielding such
aircraft. In order, the British capability
was vested in the de Havilland Comet
C.2 (RC) and the English Electric Canberra B.6 (Mod), with both types being essentially manual systems that
were equipped with a large percentage
of US equipment. Accordingly (and as
planned in 1956), the Comet's suite
included the AN/ALR-5, AN/APR-7 and
AN/APR-9 receivers, the AN/APA-17 direction finder and the AN/APA-74 signals analyzer. For its part, the "spook"
Canberra has been described as being equipped with the AN/APR-4 and
AN/ALR-8 receivers together with (of
all things) an R.216 tank radio. Both
aircraft were capable of COMINT and
ELINT functionality and operated on a
"beat" that took in the then inner Ger-

man border, the Baltic, the Barents Sea,
the Middle East and (on odd occasions)
the Far East.
For its part, France was a relative
newcomer to the field that had first
dipped its toe into the "ferret" pool
during the death throes of France's colonial empire in Indo-China and Algeria
in the 1950s and early 1960s. By September 1964, the French capability was
vested in eight N2501 Gabriel V aircraft
assigned to the French Air Force's Escadrille Electronique 54 (EE 54 - Electronic Flight) based at Lahr-Hungsweier
in what was then West Germany. Like
its British counterparts, the Gabriel V
was a manual system that was capable
of both COMINT and ELINT and incorporated a mission system that included
the American AN/ALR-8 receiver. Areas
of interest for the Gabriels included the
air corridors in and out of Berlin (which
at that time was inside Communist East
Germany), the inner German border, the
Czech Border and the Baltic.
As far as this author knows, the first
Soviet post-World War II airborne SIGINT
operations began during 1953, when
a small number of Lisunov Li-2s (Russian-built DC-3s) were fitted for "active
jamming and electronic intelligence"
and were used to monitor Russia's borders with China and Iran. By September
1964, the Russian Air Force had fielded
an ELINT variant of its Il-28R tactical
reconnaissance aircraft (designated as
the Il-28RTR and supplied to a number
of then allied air forces including those
of what was then Czechoslovakia and
Hungary) together with the much more
formidable Tu-22R "Blinder" multi-sensor reconnaissance aircraft, which was
initially fitted with the SRS-6 ELINT
"complex" and which had entered service during 1963. This multi-sensor approach (with SIGINT collection as part of
an overall capability that might include

radar imaging and wet film/EO photography as well as COMINT and ELINT),
has continued to the present day and
contrasts with the West's traditional
(but currently changing) single-task approach to aerial reconnaissance. Back in
the day, Tu-22Rs were used to fly ELINT
sorties along the NATO-Warsaw Pact border once a month together with frequent
encounters (alongside similar multi-sensor version of Tupolev's Tu-16 "Badger"
and Tu-95 "Bear" bombers) with NATO
warships transiting the world's oceans.
For its part, Sweden had begun airborne SIGINT operations as early as June
1946 (using American, British and locally
sourced receivers and analyzers) and had



JED - June 2014

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - June 2014

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
50 Years of Airborne SIGINT
ACE Program Lays Out Plans for New EW Capabilities
Technology Survey: Spectrum Analyzers
EW 101
NAWCWD Hosts 43rd Annual Collaborative Electronic Warfare Symposium
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - June 2014 - cover1
JED - June 2014 - cover2
JED - June 2014 - 3
JED - June 2014 - 4
JED - June 2014 - 5
JED - June 2014 - The View From Here
JED - June 2014 - 7
JED - June 2014 - Conferences Calendar
JED - June 2014 - 9
JED - June 2014 - Courses Calendar
JED - June 2014 - 11
JED - June 2014 - From the President
JED - June 2014 - 13
JED - June 2014 - 14
JED - June 2014 - The Monitor
JED - June 2014 - 16
JED - June 2014 - 17
JED - June 2014 - 18
JED - June 2014 - 19
JED - June 2014 - World Report
JED - June 2014 - 21
JED - June 2014 - 50 Years of Airborne SIGINT
JED - June 2014 - 23
JED - June 2014 - 24
JED - June 2014 - 25
JED - June 2014 - 26
JED - June 2014 - 27
JED - June 2014 - 28
JED - June 2014 - 29
JED - June 2014 - 30
JED - June 2014 - 31
JED - June 2014 - 32
JED - June 2014 - ACE Program Lays Out Plans for New EW Capabilities
JED - June 2014 - 34
JED - June 2014 - 35
JED - June 2014 - 36
JED - June 2014 - Technology Survey: Spectrum Analyzers
JED - June 2014 - 38
JED - June 2014 - 39
JED - June 2014 - 40
JED - June 2014 - 41
JED - June 2014 - 42
JED - June 2014 - 43
JED - June 2014 - 44
JED - June 2014 - 45
JED - June 2014 - 46
JED - June 2014 - 47
JED - June 2014 - 48
JED - June 2014 - EW 101
JED - June 2014 - 50
JED - June 2014 - 51
JED - June 2014 - 52
JED - June 2014 - NAWCWD Hosts 43rd Annual Collaborative Electronic Warfare Symposium
JED - June 2014 - AOC News
JED - June 2014 - 55
JED - June 2014 - 56
JED - June 2014 - Index of Advertisers
JED - June 2014 - JED Quick Look
JED - June 2014 - cover3
JED - June 2014 - cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0318
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0218
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0118
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0917
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0817
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0617
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0517
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0317
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0916
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0816
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0616
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0516
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0316
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0915
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0815
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0615
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0515
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0315
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1014
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0914
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0814
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0714
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0614
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0514
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0414
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0314
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1213
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1113
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1013
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0913
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0813
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0713
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0613
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0513
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0413
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0313
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0213
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0113
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0908
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com