JED - June 2016 - 27

eats, New Challenges

ques Rise to Meet the Challenge
Another way to consider DF and geolocation functionality and purpose is
whether the primary focus is on radars
(ELINT) or communication devices (COMINT). Larry Rexford, Electronic Warfare
Strategic Development and Marketing
Manager, Rockwell Collins (Richardson,
TX) says from a strictly ELINT perspective, "basic DF is the opening argument,
especially for technical collection. The
key is not the precise geolocation of the
emitter, but the angle-of-arrival and the
ability to get high sensitivity and high
gain on that signal so that you can pro-

cess and exploit it for parametric data
through the sidelobes and backlobes
rather than through the main beam."
Still, Rexford agrees that in an operational environment, geolocation will
be more important than the parametrics of the radar system and where realtime signal information is being used to
cue other sensors in a multi-ELINT application. One of the trends he observes
is "a convergence of the situational
awareness mission that used to be done
through electronic support measures
(ESM) systems and the technical collection capabilities done through a specific SIGINT platform. In either case, DF
is important."

WHAT IS THE REQUIREMENT?
Regardless of all other factors, assured signal detection is always the
first requirement for an effective DF/
geolocation system or technique. Today,
with the advent of spread-spectrum
and frequency-agile low probability of
intercept (LPI) signals, this can be an
increasingly difficult and complex task.
As described by Philipp Strobel, Rohde & Schwarz Product Manager for
Direction Finders and Receivers, "the
typical hopping speed of frequency-agile emitters is in the range of 500 hops
per second, but today there are systems
coming out with up to 2,000 hops per
second. Commercial standards, like
Bluetooth, already operate at 1,600 hops
per second, for example. These hopping
rates can be a challenge for radiolocation
systems." The bigger challenge, however, adds Rohde & Schwarz's Atanassov,
comes from spread-spectrum signals,
which can hide beneath the noise floor
in the spectrum. "Since you may not
even see these signals, you won't even
see a need to take action." To deal with

The Journal of Electronic Defense | June 2016

geolocation is the state-of-the art today. "DF and geolocation are associated
together, and for tactical commanders,
the key factor is time, so the problem
of the day is how quickly a system can
get them a high-confidence answer on
a geolocation." Vogel also highlights
system agility as a major requirement,
"both agility in the moment to address
a variety of different targets across the
spectrum, as well as agility over time to
be able to DF and geolocate new targets
as they emerge, to keep pace with the
signal environment."

27



JED - June 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - June 2016

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Advances in COMINT/ DF Systems
Technology Survey: Communications and IED Jammers
SIGINT History
EW 101
Report from the 45th Annual Collaborative EW Symposium
AOC News
2016 AOC International Election Guide
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - June 2016 - cover1
JED - June 2016 - cover2
JED - June 2016 - 3
JED - June 2016 - 4
JED - June 2016 - 5
JED - June 2016 - The View From Here
JED - June 2016 - 7
JED - June 2016 - Conferences Calendar
JED - June 2016 - 9
JED - June 2016 - Courses Calendar
JED - June 2016 - 11
JED - June 2016 - From the President
JED - June 2016 - 13
JED - June 2016 - 14
JED - June 2016 - The Monitor
JED - June 2016 - 16
JED - June 2016 - 17
JED - June 2016 - 18
JED - June 2016 - 19
JED - June 2016 - 20
JED - June 2016 - 21
JED - June 2016 - Washington Report
JED - June 2016 - 23
JED - June 2016 - World Report
JED - June 2016 - 25
JED - June 2016 - Advances in COMINT/ DF Systems
JED - June 2016 - 27
JED - June 2016 - 28
JED - June 2016 - 29
JED - June 2016 - 30
JED - June 2016 - 31
JED - June 2016 - 32
JED - June 2016 - Technology Survey: Communications and IED Jammers
JED - June 2016 - 34
JED - June 2016 - 35
JED - June 2016 - 36
JED - June 2016 - 37
JED - June 2016 - 38
JED - June 2016 - 39
JED - June 2016 - 40
JED - June 2016 - 41
JED - June 2016 - 42
JED - June 2016 - SIGINT History
JED - June 2016 - 44
JED - June 2016 - 45
JED - June 2016 - EW 101
JED - June 2016 - 47
JED - June 2016 - Report from the 45th Annual Collaborative EW Symposium
JED - June 2016 - 49
JED - June 2016 - AOC News
JED - June 2016 - 2016 AOC International Election Guide
JED - June 2016 - 52
JED - June 2016 - 53
JED - June 2016 - 54
JED - June 2016 - 55
JED - June 2016 - 56
JED - June 2016 - Index of Advertisers
JED - June 2016 - JED Quick Look
JED - June 2016 - cover3
JED - June 2016 - cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0318
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0218
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0118
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0917
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0817
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0617
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0517
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0317
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0217
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0916
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0816
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0616
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0516
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0316
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0216
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0915
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0815
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0615
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0515
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0315
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0215
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0115
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1014
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0914
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0814
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0714
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0614
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0514
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0414
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0314
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0214
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0114
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1213
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1113
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM1013
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0913
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0813
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0713
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0613
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0513
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0413
https://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/JEDM/JEDM0313
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0213
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0113
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM1009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/JEDM0908
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com