JED - June 2016 - 29

techniques they use for dealing with
co-channel interference. The techniques require more antennas than
traditional systems, as well as superresolution algorithms. "Whereas a typical DF system may have 4-5 antennas,
super-resolution requires in the range
of 8-20. The more antennas you have,
the more signals you can separate."
The systems measure both the amplitude and phase of the signal. "Today,
we need both," says Boyet. "Through
the use of correlative interferometry,

signals are simultaneously processed by
multiple receivers using specific algorithms, which provide greater accuracy
in all environments, but especially in
complex environments."
Rohde & Schwarz's Atanassov, agrees.
"The seamless integration of DF capabilities with automated signal processing
allow you maximize outcomes as well as
reduce size, weight and power (SWaP)."
The company offers a 9-channel HF DF
system with n-channel design (an equal
number of antenna elements and receive

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Power of Arrival (POA) is another
parameter sometimes employed for DF
or geolocation. However, although he
acknowledges that the technique can
sometimes be useful, Strobel says, of
the three methods, POA is the weakest.
"For example in an urban environment,
the power level can easily drop by 20dB
with nothing to do with distance-totarget, but just because you go underneath a bridge or into a tunnel, or the
transmitter does the same." Strobel says
he doesn't really see POA as helpful, although "one exception is when you're
really close to a target. Although this
wouldn't normally be the case for military applications, it could be useful to
locate an emitter indoors."
Thales's Boyet also points to another
DF technique, called Reference DF, that
he describes as "not so new in principle,
but recent in its operational use." Reference DF exploits the known characteristics of a targeted signal to help improve
or speed up DF processing. The characteristics can be anything such as the
signal channel bandwidth or a known
training sequence used in over-the-air
signaling. "With this pre-knowledge of
the signal available to the process, DF
can be significantly improved, which
is particularly key in difficult environments such as urban areas."
Today, many advanced DF/geolocation systems are based on correlative
interferometry, a technique which calculates bearing based on the phase differences of a signal received at multiple,
co-located, antenna elements usually
arranged in a circular pattern. The approach is particularly useful for dealing
with co-channel interference.
In high-signal-density environments, co-channel interference is a big
challenge. Pointing out that HF systems
continue to be used by both military
and asymmetric threats for long-range
communications, Thales's Boyet observes that co-channel interference is a
particular problem for DF systems working in the band. "In HF, it's common to
have two to four different signals coming from different emitters separated
by thousands of kilometers in the same
narrowband channel."
Thales applies the term highresolution or super-resolution to the

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JED - June 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - June 2016

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Advances in COMINT/ DF Systems
Technology Survey: Communications and IED Jammers
SIGINT History
EW 101
Report from the 45th Annual Collaborative EW Symposium
AOC News
2016 AOC International Election Guide
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - June 2016 - cover1
JED - June 2016 - cover2
JED - June 2016 - 3
JED - June 2016 - 4
JED - June 2016 - 5
JED - June 2016 - The View From Here
JED - June 2016 - 7
JED - June 2016 - Conferences Calendar
JED - June 2016 - 9
JED - June 2016 - Courses Calendar
JED - June 2016 - 11
JED - June 2016 - From the President
JED - June 2016 - 13
JED - June 2016 - 14
JED - June 2016 - The Monitor
JED - June 2016 - 16
JED - June 2016 - 17
JED - June 2016 - 18
JED - June 2016 - 19
JED - June 2016 - 20
JED - June 2016 - 21
JED - June 2016 - Washington Report
JED - June 2016 - 23
JED - June 2016 - World Report
JED - June 2016 - 25
JED - June 2016 - Advances in COMINT/ DF Systems
JED - June 2016 - 27
JED - June 2016 - 28
JED - June 2016 - 29
JED - June 2016 - 30
JED - June 2016 - 31
JED - June 2016 - 32
JED - June 2016 - Technology Survey: Communications and IED Jammers
JED - June 2016 - 34
JED - June 2016 - 35
JED - June 2016 - 36
JED - June 2016 - 37
JED - June 2016 - 38
JED - June 2016 - 39
JED - June 2016 - 40
JED - June 2016 - 41
JED - June 2016 - 42
JED - June 2016 - SIGINT History
JED - June 2016 - 44
JED - June 2016 - 45
JED - June 2016 - EW 101
JED - June 2016 - 47
JED - June 2016 - Report from the 45th Annual Collaborative EW Symposium
JED - June 2016 - 49
JED - June 2016 - AOC News
JED - June 2016 - 2016 AOC International Election Guide
JED - June 2016 - 52
JED - June 2016 - 53
JED - June 2016 - 54
JED - June 2016 - 55
JED - June 2016 - 56
JED - June 2016 - Index of Advertisers
JED - June 2016 - JED Quick Look
JED - June 2016 - cover3
JED - June 2016 - cover4
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