JED - July 2015 - 27

- an Evolving Threat
these were often manufactured in other
countries, either in the form of licensed
copies or as locally improved variants.
As newer technologies were developed,
these found their way into US, Russian
and Chinese MANPADS.

DUAL-BAND SEEKERS
The next major advance in MANPADS
seekers was the use of sensors that operated in two IR bands. A typical magnesium/Teflon/Viton (MTV) flare burns at
a temperature of around 2,000°C, well
above the 600°C- to 800°C-range typical
of an aircraft engine. So, if the seeker
is able to simultaneously compare the
energies in two different parts of the
useable IR region, it can use relative level
as an Electronic Counter-Countermeasures
(ECCM) technique. For an aircraft target, it will expect to see similar levels
of energy in both bands. If the levels
are significantly different, the source
is probably a flare, and can be ignored.
The first system to exploit this technique was Russia's KBM 9K38 Igla (SA18), which entered service in 1983 with
a cooled dual-channel IR seeker.

Chinese seeker development lagged
behind that of the US and Russia. First
displayed in 1994, the China Aerospace
Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC)
QW-1 introduced a cooled indium antimonide (InSb) IR seeker. The QW-2, shown
for the first time some four years later,
was the first Chinese MANPADS to use a
cooled two-color IR seeker.
The FIM-92A Stinger that entered service in 1981 had used an improved cooled
IR seeker, but in 1987 the US deployed
the FIM-92B. This took the concept of operating at two frequencies a step further
by operating in two different regions of
the spectrum. Its microprocessor-controlled Passive Optical Seeker Technique
(POST) homing head operated in both
the IR and Ultra-Violet (UV) bands and
used rosette-pattern image scanning, a
technique that offers a degree of quasiimaging. First adopted by Stinger POST,
this technique is probably used in several
of the more recent MANPADS, but the only
instance where this has been confirmed
is the FN-16.

IMAGING SEEKERS
The next evolution in seeker technology was the use of an imaging seeker. This
is a feature of some air-to-air missiles, including the Raytheon AIM-9X Sidewinder
and the MBDA Advanced Short-range
Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM). The only
MANPADS known to use this technique
is Toshiba's Type 91, which has a charge
coupled device (CCD) focal-plane array
operating in the 0.4- to 0.7-micron region
of the visible spectrum and the 3.5- to
5.2-micron region of the IR spectrum.
Given that non-US MANPADS design teams
often adopt Western-style technology,
it may only be a matter of time before
imaging seekers enter service on Russian,
Chinese, and other weapons.
Little is known about Russia's new
Verba MANPADS, which entered service
following the completion of trials in 2011.
Early reports suggest that its seeker operates in three bands.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | July 2015

The first Soviet-era MANPADS to employ a cooled seeker was the KBM Strela-3
(SA-14 "Gremlin"). Development started
in 1968, and the system became operational in 1974. A cooled seeker offers
the sensitivity needed to lock onto the
lower levels of IR energy coming from
the heated skin (such as the nose and
the leading edges of the wings and tail)
of an aircraft, so for the first time, the
Soviets had a weapon that could be fired
against fast approaching jets, and that
could reject potential distractions such as
sun-illuminated clouds and the horizon.
China is reported to have obtained
examples of the Strela-2 from Egypt in
1974. Development of its China National
Precision Machinery Import-Export
Corporation (CNPMIEC) HN-5 started in
1975. It proved of limited effectiveness,
but improved variants were soon fielded.
These were the HN-5A and HN-5B. The HN5A probably used an uncooled PbS seeker,
but the HN-5B introduced a seeker with
thermoelectric cooling.
These Russian and Chinese weapons
spawned a long series of more advanced
models. Along with the original versions,

27



JED - July 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - July 2015

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
The Modern MANPADS – an Evolving Threat
Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - July 2015 - cover1
JED - July 2015 - cover2
JED - July 2015 - 3
JED - July 2015 - 4
JED - July 2015 - 5
JED - July 2015 - The View From Here
JED - July 2015 - 7
JED - July 2015 - Conferences Calendar
JED - July 2015 - 9
JED - July 2015 - Courses Calendar
JED - July 2015 - 11
JED - July 2015 - From the President
JED - July 2015 - 13
JED - July 2015 - 14
JED - July 2015 - The Monitor
JED - July 2015 - 16
JED - July 2015 - 17
JED - July 2015 - 18
JED - July 2015 - 19
JED - July 2015 - 20
JED - July 2015 - 21
JED - July 2015 - World Report
JED - July 2015 - 23
JED - July 2015 - 24
JED - July 2015 - 25
JED - July 2015 - The Modern MANPADS – an Evolving Threat
JED - July 2015 - 27
JED - July 2015 - 28
JED - July 2015 - 29
JED - July 2015 - 30
JED - July 2015 - 31
JED - July 2015 - 32
JED - July 2015 - Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
JED - July 2015 - 34
JED - July 2015 - 35
JED - July 2015 - 36
JED - July 2015 - 37
JED - July 2015 - 38
JED - July 2015 - 39
JED - July 2015 - 40
JED - July 2015 - 41
JED - July 2015 - 42
JED - July 2015 - EW 101
JED - July 2015 - 44
JED - July 2015 - 45
JED - July 2015 - AOC News
JED - July 2015 - 47
JED - July 2015 - 48
JED - July 2015 - Index of Advertisers
JED - July 2015 - JED Quick Look
JED - July 2015 - cover3
JED - July 2015 - cover4
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