JED - July 2015 - 32

Russian designers have retained the
same mechanical features and multi-pin
electrical connector on the gripstocks of
the Igla-1, Igla, and Igla-S. This was done
in order to create backward compatibility so that the newer-model gripstocks
could be used to fire earlier models of
the missile.
So although an Igla-S launch tube
can be mounted on an Igla gripstock, in
theory the combination should not be
useable. A missile manufactured for use
on a vehicle-mounted system should not
be useable in a gripstock.
In practice, the change made to the
missile to implement this policy is reported to have been software-based,
and history has shown that software
or firmware-based prohibitions can be
circumvented.
The battery supplied with most
first-generation MANPADS systems only
provides pre-launch power for up to a
minute. If an inexperienced operator fails
to launch the missile, the system can
only be re-used if a replacement battery
is available. Since these are in short sup-

ply, insurgents can find themselves with
significant numbers of unusable systems.
In recent years, several insurgent
groups have developed replacement batteries. These can take the form of box-like
housings that replace the standard-issue
battery, or improvised external battery
packs that are connected to the launcher
via a cable. Examples of such schemes
have been shown in recent videos released
by organizations, such as the Free Syrian
Army, and paramilitary organizations
linked to Hamas.
In a video released on the Internet, the
Bashaer al-Nasr Brigade showed its version
of an external power source. Made up of
five motorcycle batteries linked in series
and stored in a cardboard box, this was
linked to the Strela-2M system by a cable
that terminated in an adaptor that had
been made from the rear section of an expired battery. As the video confirmed, this
allowed the missile launcher and missile
to be powered up and the seeker activated.
Such locally engineered solutions
may be an effective way of keeping firstgeneration systems such as Strela-2M in

service, but devising a similar improvisation for systems that use cooled seekers
will be more difficult, since an abortive
launch attempt will have depleted the
gripstock's supply of coolant as well as
its battery power.

EVOLUTION
Nearly 50 years after the first
MANPADS were fielded, these threats
continue to evolve through the integration of new technologies. Their effectiveness is underscored by the wide number
of state and non-state users who rely on
them to counter all types of aircraft from
fighters to helicopters. In response, air
forces around the word have invested in
electronic warfare self-protection systems
in order to fly within the MANPADS threat
envelope (generally, below 15,000 ft), and
some have invested in stand-off targeting and stand-off munitions in order to
fly above the MANPADS threat envelope.
What seems certain is that MANPADS will
continue to drive aircraft IR countermeasures requirements for many years
to come. a

The Journal of Electronic Defense | July 2015

32

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JED - July 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - July 2015

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
The Modern MANPADS – an Evolving Threat
Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - July 2015 - cover1
JED - July 2015 - cover2
JED - July 2015 - 3
JED - July 2015 - 4
JED - July 2015 - 5
JED - July 2015 - The View From Here
JED - July 2015 - 7
JED - July 2015 - Conferences Calendar
JED - July 2015 - 9
JED - July 2015 - Courses Calendar
JED - July 2015 - 11
JED - July 2015 - From the President
JED - July 2015 - 13
JED - July 2015 - 14
JED - July 2015 - The Monitor
JED - July 2015 - 16
JED - July 2015 - 17
JED - July 2015 - 18
JED - July 2015 - 19
JED - July 2015 - 20
JED - July 2015 - 21
JED - July 2015 - World Report
JED - July 2015 - 23
JED - July 2015 - 24
JED - July 2015 - 25
JED - July 2015 - The Modern MANPADS – an Evolving Threat
JED - July 2015 - 27
JED - July 2015 - 28
JED - July 2015 - 29
JED - July 2015 - 30
JED - July 2015 - 31
JED - July 2015 - 32
JED - July 2015 - Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
JED - July 2015 - 34
JED - July 2015 - 35
JED - July 2015 - 36
JED - July 2015 - 37
JED - July 2015 - 38
JED - July 2015 - 39
JED - July 2015 - 40
JED - July 2015 - 41
JED - July 2015 - 42
JED - July 2015 - EW 101
JED - July 2015 - 44
JED - July 2015 - 45
JED - July 2015 - AOC News
JED - July 2015 - 47
JED - July 2015 - 48
JED - July 2015 - Index of Advertisers
JED - July 2015 - JED Quick Look
JED - July 2015 - cover3
JED - July 2015 - cover4
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