JED - October 2014 - 38

Observe

∆t1 ≥ tsense + tprocess

Orient

Act

∆t3 ≥ tconfigure

Process

∆t4 ≥ ttransmit

Transmit

Decide

Analyze

∆t2 ≥ tanalyze

Figure 1: Electromagnetic Maneuver Warfare OODA-loop

The Journal of Electronic Defense | October 2014

38

portion of the spectrum can be best utilized. If the portion
of the spectrum currently used is congested, the radio may
decide to move within the EMS or change its transmission parameters, in which case a reconfiguration event follows. Once
this has occurred the radio arrives at the "act" phase of its
cycle, where it again is capable of transmitting data, after
which the OODA cycle begins anew.
A key component of maneuver warfare is tempo. In order
to out-maneuver an adversary, it is essential to cycle through
one's OODA-loop quicker and more accurately than the enemy.
It is possible to assign variables to OODA-loops and calculate
their associated tempo [3]. Figure 1 includes the tempo parameters associated with our proposed electromagnetic maneuver
warfare OODA-loop. The variable Δt1 represents the time from
observation to orientation and is limited by sensing and processing time. Δt2 is the time from orientation to decision. This

is limited by the time it takes to perform the necessary automated decision support analysis. Δt3 is the time from decision to action. This variable is limited by the speed at which
equipment reconfigurations can occur in support of decisions
to maneuver within the spectrum or across different networks.
Finally, Δt4 represents the time from action to observation.
This variable is limited by the time needed for a transmission to take place in the newly configured system. Letting tOODA
represent the total time it takes to complete one cycle of the
OODA-loop (i.e., the period), we have:
4

tOODA ≥

∑∆t =(t
i

+tProcess+t Analyze+tConfigure+tTransmit )

Sense

i=1

1

Using the relationship, period = frequency , we can now use tOODA
to derive the frequency (tempo) of the electromagnetic maneuver warfare OODA-loop.
1
1
TempoOODA ≤ tOODA = tSense+t Process+t Analyze+tConfigure+tTransmit

This measure can in turn be used to derive a few key facts.
For example, by letting t Maneuver = tConfigure + tTransmit and then using
a bit of algebra we get:
1
t Maneuver = TempoOODA - (tSense+t Process+t Analyze )

In other words, as expected, the time it takes to maneuver
within the EMOE is related to the time required to sense, pro-

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JED - October 2014

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - October 2014

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Maneuver Warfare in the Electromagnetic Battlespace
The Race to Keep Pace: Countermeasures Against Radar-Guided Anti-Ship Missiles
CONVERGING INTERESTS - Is CEMA the Right Solution for the US Army’s EMS Mission?
Technology Survey: Anti-Jam GPS Receivers and Antennas
New Products
Book Reviews
EW 101
AOC 2014 Award Winners
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - October 2014 - cover1
JED - October 2014 - cover2
JED - October 2014 - 3
JED - October 2014 - 4
JED - October 2014 - 5
JED - October 2014 - The View From Here
JED - October 2014 - 7
JED - October 2014 - Conferences Calendar
JED - October 2014 - 9
JED - October 2014 - Courses Calendar
JED - October 2014 - 11
JED - October 2014 - From the President
JED - October 2014 - 13
JED - October 2014 - 14
JED - October 2014 - The Monitor
JED - October 2014 - 16
JED - October 2014 - 17
JED - October 2014 - 18
JED - October 2014 - 19
JED - October 2014 - 20
JED - October 2014 - 21
JED - October 2014 - 22
JED - October 2014 - 23
JED - October 2014 - 24
JED - October 2014 - 25
JED - October 2014 - Washington Report
JED - October 2014 - 27
JED - October 2014 - World Report
JED - October 2014 - 29
JED - October 2014 - Maneuver Warfare in the Electromagnetic Battlespace
JED - October 2014 - 31
JED - October 2014 - 32
JED - October 2014 - 33
JED - October 2014 - 34
JED - October 2014 - 35
JED - October 2014 - 36
JED - October 2014 - 37
JED - October 2014 - 38
JED - October 2014 - 39
JED - October 2014 - 40
JED - October 2014 - 41
JED - October 2014 - 42
JED - October 2014 - 43
JED - October 2014 - 44
JED - October 2014 - 45
JED - October 2014 - The Race to Keep Pace: Countermeasures Against Radar-Guided Anti-Ship Missiles
JED - October 2014 - 47
JED - October 2014 - 48
JED - October 2014 - 49
JED - October 2014 - 50
JED - October 2014 - 51
JED - October 2014 - 52
JED - October 2014 - 53
JED - October 2014 - 54
JED - October 2014 - 55
JED - October 2014 - 56
JED - October 2014 - 57
JED - October 2014 - 58
JED - October 2014 - 59
JED - October 2014 - 60
JED - October 2014 - 61
JED - October 2014 - 62
JED - October 2014 - 63
JED - October 2014 - 64
JED - October 2014 - CONVERGING INTERESTS - Is CEMA the Right Solution for the US Army’s EMS Mission?
JED - October 2014 - 66
JED - October 2014 - 68
JED - October 2014 - 67
JED - October 2014 - Technology Survey: Anti-Jam GPS Receivers and Antennas
JED - October 2014 - 70
JED - October 2014 - 71
JED - October 2014 - 72
JED - October 2014 - 73
JED - October 2014 - 74
JED - October 2014 - 75
JED - October 2014 - 76
JED - October 2014 - 77
JED - October 2014 - New Products
JED - October 2014 - 79
JED - October 2014 - Book Reviews
JED - October 2014 - 81
JED - October 2014 - EW 101
JED - October 2014 - 83
JED - October 2014 - 84
JED - October 2014 - 85
JED - October 2014 - AOC 2014 Award Winners
JED - October 2014 - 87
JED - October 2014 - 88
JED - October 2014 - 89
JED - October 2014 - 90
JED - October 2014 - 91
JED - October 2014 - 92
JED - October 2014 - 93
JED - October 2014 - AOC News
JED - October 2014 - 95
JED - October 2014 - Index of Advertisers
JED - October 2014 - 97
JED - October 2014 - JED Quick Look
JED - October 2014 - cover3
JED - October 2014 - cover4
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