JED - October 2016 - 36

Soft-Kill Decoy Terminology

C

onfusion, distraction, and seduction. Like
many areas of EW, naval decoys are sometimes described using a unique subset of EW
terminology that can seem confusing. Naval
countermeasures decoys, such as chaff and IR
decoys, are often tailored to a specific purpose or role in countering an antiship missile (ASM) attack.
Multiple types of decoy rounds can be needed to defeat an
ASM attack. Chaff rounds, which are used to defeat radarguided threats, fall into three main categories: confusion,
distraction and seduction. IR rounds typically are used in
either distraction or seduction modes against threats with
IR seekers or dual-mode RF/IR seekers. Choosing which type
of chaff or IR decoy to deploy at a given moment depends on
which phase of an ASM attack is occurring.

Chaff Rounds

The Journal of Electronic Defense | October 2016

36

Chaff rounds burst and rapidly spread chaff filaments
into the air in a very short timeframe (in a matter of a few
seconds) in order to quickly create a chaff cloud with a large
radar cross section. Chaff decoys can be launched in a timed
sequence so that if the ASM's radar seeker eventually rejects
a decoy, there is another chaff cloud forming nearby to grab
its attention.
Confusion: If the enemy is searching for a target via radar,
then a ship can launch chaff rounds in "confusion mode"
to complicate the enemy's ability to detect and target the
ship. Confusion rounds are typically deployed while a ship
is still below an enemy's radar horizon. Compared to distraction and seduction rounds, confusion rounds are typically
launched at higher angles and with longer fuze times. This
allows the chaff round to separate further from the ship (10-

15 km) and bloom at a higher altitude (about 1,000 meters)
so that it will remain airborne for an extended period (10-15
min.) before the chaff cloud loses effectiveness. Confusion
rounds typically generate chaff clouds with a "ship-sized"
radar cross section to force the enemy to concentrate its attention on the false target. This can buy a ship commander
valuable time in an engagement.
Distraction: If the enemy has detected a target and
launched an ASM toward the ship's location, the missile
will typically begin its run in search mode. While the missile seeker is searching for its target, the ship can launch a
distraction chaff round to prevent the missile seeker from
locking onto the ship. Distraction chaff rounds are typically launched at medium range (about 1-2 km from the
ship) and activate at relatively low altitudes (100-200 meters) with very fast bloom times. These rounds can generate a radar cross section anywhere from 2,000 m2 to 10,000
m 2. The goal is to present a false target well away from the
ship and gain enough separation to prevent the missile
from acquiring the ship even after it travels through the
chaff cloud.
Seduction: In a missile attack, if the ASM seeker does
manage to lock onto the ship, the crew can immediately
launch seduction chaff rounds to provide a more attractive
target during the terminal phase of the missile's flight. This
is sometimes referred to as centroid seduction.
Seduction rounds are typically deployed 100-600 meters
from the ship and activate 50-100 meters above the surface. These rounds create a large radar cross section (several
times larger than the actual ship - anywhere from 60009000 m2 for a smaller vessel, such as an OPV or corvette, to
as much as 15,000 m2 for a frigate) to attract the missile

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JED - October 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - October 2016

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
Bait in the Trap: Trainable Soft-Kill Systems Proliferate for ASMD
2017 EW/SIGINT Resource Guide
SIGINT History
EW 101
AOC News
Index to Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - October 2016 - cover1
JED - October 2016 - cover2
JED - October 2016 - 3
JED - October 2016 - 4
JED - October 2016 - 5
JED - October 2016 - The View From Here
JED - October 2016 - 7
JED - October 2016 - Conferences Calendar
JED - October 2016 - 9
JED - October 2016 - Courses Calendar
JED - October 2016 - 11
JED - October 2016 - From the President
JED - October 2016 - 13
JED - October 2016 - 14
JED - October 2016 - The Monitor
JED - October 2016 - insert1
JED - October 2016 - insert2
JED - October 2016 - 16
JED - October 2016 - 17
JED - October 2016 - 18
JED - October 2016 - 19
JED - October 2016 - 20
JED - October 2016 - 21
JED - October 2016 - World Report
JED - October 2016 - 23
JED - October 2016 - Bait in the Trap: Trainable Soft-Kill Systems Proliferate for ASMD
JED - October 2016 - 25
JED - October 2016 - 26
JED - October 2016 - 27
JED - October 2016 - 28
JED - October 2016 - 29
JED - October 2016 - 30
JED - October 2016 - 31
JED - October 2016 - 32
JED - October 2016 - 33
JED - October 2016 - 34
JED - October 2016 - 35
JED - October 2016 - 36
JED - October 2016 - 37
JED - October 2016 - 38
JED - October 2016 - 39
JED - October 2016 - 2017 EW/SIGINT Resource Guide
JED - October 2016 - 41
JED - October 2016 - 42
JED - October 2016 - 43
JED - October 2016 - 44
JED - October 2016 - 45
JED - October 2016 - 46
JED - October 2016 - 47
JED - October 2016 - 48
JED - October 2016 - 49
JED - October 2016 - 50
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JED - October 2016 - 53
JED - October 2016 - 54
JED - October 2016 - 55
JED - October 2016 - 56
JED - October 2016 - 57
JED - October 2016 - 58
JED - October 2016 - 59
JED - October 2016 - 60
JED - October 2016 - 61
JED - October 2016 - 62
JED - October 2016 - 63
JED - October 2016 - 64
JED - October 2016 - SIGINT History
JED - October 2016 - 66
JED - October 2016 - 67
JED - October 2016 - EW 101
JED - October 2016 - 69
JED - October 2016 - AOC News
JED - October 2016 - 71
JED - October 2016 - Index to Advertisers
JED - October 2016 - 73
JED - October 2016 - JED Quick Look
JED - October 2016 - cover3
JED - October 2016 - cover4
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