JED - November 2013 - 25

UK
The UK Ministry of Defence (MOD)
is continuing to make a significant investment in maritime electronic warfare, and has laid out a roadmap for the
enhancement of the Royal Navy's (RN's)
surface ship electronic surveillance
capability.
Thales UK is established as the incumbent supplier of radar-band electronic support measures (RESM) systems
to the RN. Its Outfit UAT family of RESM
systems was originally introduced to
service in the mid-1990s to meet Staff
Requirement (Sea) 7324. Combining
wideband instantaneous frequency
measurement (IFM) receiver technology
with a proprietary channelized receiver
architecture, the system, in its original
form, comprises an eight-port amplitude
comparison array, three receiver cabinets, three RF processing cabinets and
a dedicated operations room display to
provide intercept, identification, analysis and direction finding of radars operating in the 0.6-18 GHz frequency band.
Type 45 destroyers feature the Outfit
UAT(16) variant. This adopts a revised
architecture in that it embodies an entirely new de-interleaving and library
system based on the Minerva GTPA
(Graph Theoretic Processing Algorithms)
signal processor (developed and trialed
in conjunction with the Defence Science
and Technology Laboratory [Dstl] and
Thales Research) and a novel emitter

library matching system based on the
Dstl's Palantir technology demonstrator. Inboard equipment for UAT(16) has
been shrunk down to two mast-mounted
receiver cabinets and two below decks
processing cabinets.
Building on the technology underpinning Outfit UAT(16), Thales was in
August 2003 awarded a £16 million contract to deliver a substantial technology
refresh for existing Outfit UAT installations to improve identification performance and minimize false alarms. This
so-called Capability Upgrade Programme
(UAT CUP), which promotes functional
commonality to UAT Mod 1 standard
across the fleet-wide RESM fit (including the Type 45 destroyers) introduces
an improved signal processing chain
based on Minerva and Palantir, an upgraded human computer interface, and
the provision of additional external interfaces and algorithms.
Following testing and integration at
the Land-Based Test Site/Shore Integration Facility at Portsdown, the first Outfit UAT CUP ship retrofit was delivered
to the Type 23 frigate HMS Richmond.
The system achieved operational capability in September 2006.
However, the MOD and Thales have
for some time recognized that the performance of "legacy" RESM systems in
the littoral is limited by the parameter
accuracies that need to be measured in
order to uniquely identify threats in
dense electromagnetic environments.
Furthermore, the overlap of time coincident signals means that high power
consort emitters may simply "mask" low
power LPI threat radars.
To address these shortfalls, the MOD
(through Dstl) has for the last decade
nurtured the development of a nextgeneration of RESM systems offering
significant improvements in sensitivity,
direction finding, parameter measurement and mutual interference resilience
through the full exploitation of modern
digital processing. In particular, it identified wideband digital receiver technology - based on direct digitization of the
signal environment - as a critical enabler.
The move to a digital front end is also
seen to offer the potential for significant cost reductions in both acquisition
and support.

This technology has been brought
to fruition under the umbrella of the
Daphne and DART (Digital Advanced
Receiver
Technology)
programs.
Through these two efforts the MOD
(led by Dstl) and Thales UK (as prime
industry partner) have matured direct
RF sampling and wideband digital receiver technology through a series of
research and demonstration activities.
This technology is now being exploited
by Thales UK in the fleetwide upgrade
of the Outfit UAT Mod 1 RESM system to
Mod 2 standard.
The initial UAT Mod 2.0 system is
already in limited service. Leveraging
technology previously proved in the
DART program, Thales undertook an accelerated development, integration and
test program (which matured the digital
technology from the demonstrator phase
through to platform acceptance in approximately 19 months) to meet the deployment date for the Type 45 destroyer
HMS Daring. This first UAT Mod 2.0 RESM
fit completed factory acceptance in November 2011, and was installed, set-towork and tested on board prior to the
ship deploying in January 2012. HMS
Diamond subsequently received a UAT
Mod 2.0 fit prior to its deployment to
the Gulf in June 2012.
In essence, the UAT Mod 2.0 program
implements a "pre-production solution"
using hardware technology from the
preceding DART technical demonstrator
program. These two initial fits are now
being rotated across the Type 45 fleet
according to tasking priorities.
The Outfit UAT Mod 2.0 fit has also
served to prove the technology operationally and de-risk a follow-on main
production Mod 2.1/2.3 activity for
which Thales UK was awarded a £43.4
million contract in March 2012. This will
see full-production standard UAT Mod 2
RESM installations rolled out across the
RN surface fleet from late 2014.
Under the UAT Mod 2.1 program, all
six Type 45 destroyers, plus a land-based
reference system at the Maritime Integration Support Centre at Portsdown,
will receive an updated Outfit UAT RESM
fit. The Mod 2.3 program upgrades a further 16 ships (13 Type 23 frigates, the
helicopter carrier HMS Ocean and the assault ships HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark)

The Journal of Electronic Defense | November 2013

For shipboard ESM systems, keeping pace
with the evolution of naval radars has
never been simple. The introduction of
frequency modulated continuous wave
(FMCW) naval radars in the 1990s represented a significant challenge. Low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) radars, such as
the Pilot navigation radar for commercial
ships and the Scout search radar for naval vessels drove new naval ESM requirements. The recent introduction of active
electronically scanned array (AESA)
shipboard radars is ushering in a new
generation of shipboard ESM technology.
While the US Navy is focusing its efforts
on the Surface Ship EW Improvement
Program (see JED, January 2013, p. 24)
many other radar ESM (RESM) solutions
are available, particularly from European
EW manufacturers.

25



JED - November 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - November 2013

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
What’s New in Naval ESM
Technology Survey: COMINT/DF Receivers
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - November 2013 - cover1
JED - November 2013 - cover2
JED - November 2013 - 3
JED - November 2013 - 4
JED - November 2013 - 5
JED - November 2013 - The View From Here
JED - November 2013 - 7
JED - November 2013 - Conferences Calendar
JED - November 2013 - 9
JED - November 2013 - Courses Calendar
JED - November 2013 - 11
JED - November 2013 - From the President
JED - November 2013 - 13
JED - November 2013 - 14
JED - November 2013 - The Monitor
JED - November 2013 - 16
JED - November 2013 - 17
JED - November 2013 - 18
JED - November 2013 - 19
JED - November 2013 - 20
JED - November 2013 - 21
JED - November 2013 - World Report
JED - November 2013 - 23
JED - November 2013 - What’s New in Naval ESM
JED - November 2013 - 25
JED - November 2013 - 26
JED - November 2013 - 27
JED - November 2013 - 28
JED - November 2013 - 29
JED - November 2013 - 30
JED - November 2013 - Technology Survey: COMINT/DF Receivers
JED - November 2013 - 32
JED - November 2013 - 33
JED - November 2013 - 34
JED - November 2013 - 35
JED - November 2013 - 36
JED - November 2013 - 37
JED - November 2013 - 38
JED - November 2013 - 39
JED - November 2013 - 40
JED - November 2013 - 41
JED - November 2013 - 42
JED - November 2013 - 43
JED - November 2013 - EW 101
JED - November 2013 - 45
JED - November 2013 - 46
JED - November 2013 - AOC News
JED - November 2013 - 48
JED - November 2013 - Index of Advertisers
JED - November 2013 - JED Quick Look
JED - November 2013 - cover3
JED - November 2013 - cover4
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