JED - November 2015 - 27

AEA for A2AD
radars that can cue SAMs. China is pursuing a similar strategy to counter fifthgen fighters, with the introduction of
its JY-27A, a VHF-band radar developed
by the East China Research Institute of
Electronic Engineering.
While today's VHF radars pose a challenge, they are mono-static (the transmitter and receiver are collocated) and
can at least be detected and located
from their transmissions, which makes
them vulnerable to jamming, decoys and
hard-kill weapons. More problematic are
the rapid advances in multi-static radar
technology (sometimes called passive
radar), which is leveraging huge gains in
commercial signal processing technology
to make them credible long-range surveillance sensors in an IADS. It is worth
pointing out that multi-static radars are
not electronic support measures (ESM)
systems, which rely on active emissions
(radar or datalink transmissions) from
the target. In ground-based air defense
applications, passive radar systems use
a bi-static or multi-static configuration
in which the ground-based transmitters are typically located anywhere from
1km to 100 km (or further) from the
receiver. The radar receiver must know
the location of these transmitters, as
well as its own location. It monitors the
"reference" signals transmitted directly

from these emitters, as well as the reflected signals from airborne targets. In
a multi-static configuration comprising
multiple transmitters and multiple passive radars, the location of the airborne
target can be determined quickly and
with enough accuracy (position and velocity) to cue other tracking and targeting radars in an IADS kill chain.
In a multi-static radar configuration, it is important to emphasize that
the transmitters do not even need to
transmit radar signals. Signal processing technology is rapidly advancing
to the point at which a passive radar
receiver can use "signals of opportunity," such as commercial VHF and
UHF transmissions from TV, radio and
other broadcast emitters, to detect and
track (to some degree, at least) fifthgeneration fighter aircraft. Because
the transmitter and receiver are not
collocated, this makes the passive radar receiver very difficult to locate,
especially from stand-off distances.
The plethora of available commercial
and military transmitters also makes it
very difficult to determine which signals (or even which frequencies) a passive radar is monitoring at any specific
moment, and thus it is difficult to surgically jam the radar with a relatively
small number of stand-off jammers.

Penetrating decoys and jammers, such as the Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD), will provide an important close-in capability in future AEA
missions. (Raytheon photos)

The Journal of Electronic Defense | November 2015

borne early warning and control aircraft
(E-3A AWACS Sentry and E-2D Hawkeye
II) and push them back beyond the
ranges of their sensors, where they cannot contribute much to the "sensor to
shooter" network. This would also push
aerial refueling tankers (KC-135 Stratotanker and KC-46A Pegasus) further
out and reduce the ability of F-35 and
F-18E/F fighter/strike aircraft to reach
their targets.
Another IADS trend is to erode the
advantage that low observable (LO)
technology provides to aircraft. The development of fifth-generation fighter
aircraft (F-22 and F-35) provides a huge
potential advantage against mid- and
high-band (C, X and Ku bands) tracking
and fire-control radars. In an attempt to
"nullify" this advantage, some modern
IADS have been improving the performance of radars that operate in the VHF
and UHF bands, where the radar cross
section of fifth-gen fighters is much
larger due to aircraft features such as
vertical stabilizers and wingtips.
While VHF radar cannot provide
fire-control quality performance today,
designs like the Almaz-Antey Nebo-M
family of active electronically scanned
array (AESA) radars use VHF radars to
detect and track a target before handing off to higher-frequency fire-control

27



JED - November 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - November 2015

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
Airborne Electronic Attack for A2AD
52nd Annual AOC International Symposium and Convention Guide
2016 EW/SIGINT Resource Guide
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - November 2015 - cover1
JED - November 2015 - cover2
JED - November 2015 - 3
JED - November 2015 - 4
JED - November 2015 - 5
JED - November 2015 - The View From Here
JED - November 2015 - 7
JED - November 2015 - Conferences Calendar
JED - November 2015 - 9
JED - November 2015 - Courses Calendar
JED - November 2015 - 11
JED - November 2015 - From the President
JED - November 2015 - 13
JED - November 2015 - 14
JED - November 2015 - The Monitor
JED - November 2015 - 16
JED - November 2015 - 17
JED - November 2015 - 18
JED - November 2015 - 19
JED - November 2015 - 20
JED - November 2015 - 21
JED - November 2015 - 22
JED - November 2015 - 23
JED - November 2015 - World Report
JED - November 2015 - 25
JED - November 2015 - Airborne Electronic Attack for A2AD
JED - November 2015 - 27
JED - November 2015 - 28
JED - November 2015 - 29
JED - November 2015 - 30
JED - November 2015 - 31
JED - November 2015 - 32
JED - November 2015 - 33
JED - November 2015 - 34
JED - November 2015 - 35
JED - November 2015 - 36
JED - November 2015 - 37
JED - November 2015 - 38
JED - November 2015 - 39
JED - November 2015 - 40
JED - November 2015 - 52nd Annual AOC International Symposium and Convention Guide
JED - November 2015 - 42
JED - November 2015 - 43
JED - November 2015 - 44
JED - November 2015 - 45
JED - November 2015 - 46
JED - November 2015 - 47
JED - November 2015 - 48
JED - November 2015 - 49
JED - November 2015 - 50
JED - November 2015 - 51
JED - November 2015 - 52
JED - November 2015 - 53
JED - November 2015 - 54
JED - November 2015 - 55
JED - November 2015 - 56
JED - November 2015 - 57
JED - November 2015 - 58
JED - November 2015 - 59
JED - November 2015 - 2016 EW/SIGINT Resource Guide
JED - November 2015 - 61
JED - November 2015 - 62
JED - November 2015 - 63
JED - November 2015 - 64
JED - November 2015 - 65
JED - November 2015 - 66
JED - November 2015 - 67
JED - November 2015 - 68
JED - November 2015 - 69
JED - November 2015 - 70
JED - November 2015 - 71
JED - November 2015 - 72
JED - November 2015 - 73
JED - November 2015 - 74
JED - November 2015 - 75
JED - November 2015 - 76
JED - November 2015 - 77
JED - November 2015 - 78
JED - November 2015 - 79
JED - November 2015 - EW 101
JED - November 2015 - 81
JED - November 2015 - AOC News
JED - November 2015 - 83
JED - November 2015 - Index of Advertisers
JED - November 2015 - 85
JED - November 2015 - JED Quick Look
JED - November 2015 - cover3
JED - November 2015 - cover4
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