JED - November 2015 - 32

Strike-Bomber. Or, they could be launched
by another type of stealthy platform that
can operate near an adversary's coastline:
Submarines and large unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs).
For AEA platforms, finding multistatic passive surveillance radars is
certainly more challenging than detecting and locating mono-static radars.
However, passive radars do have their
weaknesses. For instance, the target
resolution of passive radars is typically
very poor compared to the information
that a mono-static radar can glean from
a target. And, passive radars usually rely
on VHF and UHF transmitters that emit
a continuous wave signal, which can
make them more susceptible to DRFMbased jammers. Unlike mono-static radars, passive radars must monitor two
signals: the "reference" signal direct
from a transmitter, such as a VHF or
UHF television tower, and the reflected
signal from the aircraft. This gives AEA
planners two opportunities to manipulate the signal.
Passive radars can operate alone or
(more efficiently) in a network, and they

must characterize the electromagnetic
environment they are monitoring, determining precisely where the reference
signals are coming from and filtering out
all of the "normal" returns from friendly
and neutral aircraft, as well as ground
clutter from broadcast towers, buildings,
etc. A passive radar finds its targets by
detecting anomalies in this environment - monitoring reflections from an
airborne target to determine its position
and processing the Doppler shift to determine target velocity. Essentially, it
uses signals it does not control to look for
needles in a well-known and thoroughlycharacterized electromagnetic haystack.
One potential way of defeating passive radars is to exploit their dependence
on remote transmitters. If the passive
radar network is looking for a relatively
small number of anomalies to process,
the close-in jammers can complicate this
task by using DRFMs to create a dense
environment of conflicting signals designed to mimic various target returns
and Doppler shifts. They could even be
used to generate false "reference" signals. This requires large numbers of RF

repeater decoys in order to cover most
of the broadcast reference signals the
passive radar network could use. But,
consider how a relatively cheap decoy
(think of something about the same size
and price of an ALE-50, a Gen-X or BriteCloud) could be adapted to this purpose.
Fitted with folding wings to slow their
descent, these DRFM-equipped decoys
could be dispensed in the hundreds from
a penetrating LO strike aircraft, such as
a B-2, at say 30,000-40,000 feet above a
target area. Deployed in this way, these
RF repeater decoys would be able to glide
autonomously for up to an hour and saturate the electromagnetic environment
with confusing VHF signals rebroadcast
from the reference signals. The effect
would be temporary, but it would probably be enough to diminish the advantage that passive radars can provide to
an IADS and help clear the way for strike
aircraft to operate over the target area.
In general, the AEA mission will become
very dependent on wide use of decoys of
all types - assuming that they are inexpensive and can be delivered into the
battlespace.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | November 2015

32

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JED - November 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - November 2015

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
Airborne Electronic Attack for A2AD
52nd Annual AOC International Symposium and Convention Guide
2016 EW/SIGINT Resource Guide
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - November 2015 - cover1
JED - November 2015 - cover2
JED - November 2015 - 3
JED - November 2015 - 4
JED - November 2015 - 5
JED - November 2015 - The View From Here
JED - November 2015 - 7
JED - November 2015 - Conferences Calendar
JED - November 2015 - 9
JED - November 2015 - Courses Calendar
JED - November 2015 - 11
JED - November 2015 - From the President
JED - November 2015 - 13
JED - November 2015 - 14
JED - November 2015 - The Monitor
JED - November 2015 - 16
JED - November 2015 - 17
JED - November 2015 - 18
JED - November 2015 - 19
JED - November 2015 - 20
JED - November 2015 - 21
JED - November 2015 - 22
JED - November 2015 - 23
JED - November 2015 - World Report
JED - November 2015 - 25
JED - November 2015 - Airborne Electronic Attack for A2AD
JED - November 2015 - 27
JED - November 2015 - 28
JED - November 2015 - 29
JED - November 2015 - 30
JED - November 2015 - 31
JED - November 2015 - 32
JED - November 2015 - 33
JED - November 2015 - 34
JED - November 2015 - 35
JED - November 2015 - 36
JED - November 2015 - 37
JED - November 2015 - 38
JED - November 2015 - 39
JED - November 2015 - 40
JED - November 2015 - 52nd Annual AOC International Symposium and Convention Guide
JED - November 2015 - 42
JED - November 2015 - 43
JED - November 2015 - 44
JED - November 2015 - 45
JED - November 2015 - 46
JED - November 2015 - 47
JED - November 2015 - 48
JED - November 2015 - 49
JED - November 2015 - 50
JED - November 2015 - 51
JED - November 2015 - 52
JED - November 2015 - 53
JED - November 2015 - 54
JED - November 2015 - 55
JED - November 2015 - 56
JED - November 2015 - 57
JED - November 2015 - 58
JED - November 2015 - 59
JED - November 2015 - 2016 EW/SIGINT Resource Guide
JED - November 2015 - 61
JED - November 2015 - 62
JED - November 2015 - 63
JED - November 2015 - 64
JED - November 2015 - 65
JED - November 2015 - 66
JED - November 2015 - 67
JED - November 2015 - 68
JED - November 2015 - 69
JED - November 2015 - 70
JED - November 2015 - 71
JED - November 2015 - 72
JED - November 2015 - 73
JED - November 2015 - 74
JED - November 2015 - 75
JED - November 2015 - 76
JED - November 2015 - 77
JED - November 2015 - 78
JED - November 2015 - 79
JED - November 2015 - EW 101
JED - November 2015 - 81
JED - November 2015 - AOC News
JED - November 2015 - 83
JED - November 2015 - Index of Advertisers
JED - November 2015 - 85
JED - November 2015 - JED Quick Look
JED - November 2015 - cover3
JED - November 2015 - cover4
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