JED - November 2017 - 66

EW 101

Next Generation EW - Part 1

EW in the New
Threat Environment
By Dave Adamy

O

The Journal of Electronic Defense | November 2017

66

ver the last few years, our potential opponents
have been busy developing a whole new generation of threats and approaches that are specifically designed to counter the way we've been
doing EW tasks with great success for generations.
Over the next few months, we will be discussing
the nature of the changes to the threats and the implications
of those changes on EW systems and tactics.
Because this column is unclassified, our information about
these new threats must come from open literature. Fortunately, there is a great deal of information about new threats in
open literature. However, anyone who has a security clearance
is forbidden to either confirm or deny that open literature is
accurate. My approach to this is to first look at any open literature description of hostile equipment or tactics from a "laws
of physics" point of view. If the information passes that test,
I treat it as accurate, but identify it as a quote from open literature. Let's be clear: I don't really care if the information
is accurate or not, just that it makes sense; which probably
means that it is in the right ball park. Later, when you need
to perform EW operations seriously, you can get appropriate
authority to access the real threat information from classified
data bases. Plugging the real information into the formulas we
will develop will yield the real answers that you need when
things get serious.
In this series, we will start by reviewing various EW approaches and techniques that have been covered in EW 101 columns over the past two decades. Then, we will talk about the
changes from earlier threats that are occurring in the new generation of threats, and how this impacts modern EW systems
and tactics. Finally, we will talk about those new required system capabilities and tactics and their practical considerations.
We will start slowly with basic material, but fear not, we
will progress to more complex material over the course of the
series.

LEGACY EW SYSTEMS AND TACTICS
There are three basic types of threats that have driven
EW systems and tactics over the years: surface to air missiles
(SAMs), radar controlled guns (AAA), and Aerial interceptors.

We will focus on the ground-based threats here. An example of
a legacy SAM system that is still operational is the SA-2 which
is guided by the Fan Song radar. Recent articles on the SA-2
indicate that its lethal range is about 40 km. A typical legacy
AAA (i.e. Automatic Anti-Aircraft gun) is the ZSU-23 which
has a range of about 1500 meters.
There are numerous ways to counter these threats, but here
we will discuss jamming, because this has been the focus of
the increased effectiveness of the new generation of weapons
that will be discussed later in this EW-101 series. The two types
of jamming we will discuss are cover jamming and deceptive
jamming, and the two jamming geometries we have been employing are self-protection jamming and stand-off jamming.
Before this series is complete, we will have discussed many
other weapons and defense approaches.
A cover jammer typically broadcasts noise so that the radar
receiver cannot receive its return signal with enough quality
to acquire or track the target. Cover jamming can be applied
as either self-protection or stand-off jamming. Deceptive jamming involves broadcasting signals which cause the jammed
radar to make incorrect decisions about the location of the
target the radar is trying to acquire or track. Deceptive techniques require that the jammer system know what is happening with the radar signals at the target (in sub-microsecond
time frame); thus, a self-protection jammer can do deceptive
jamming because it sees the signal at the target.

SELF-PROTECTION JAMMING
As shown in Figure 1, self-protection jamming uses a jammer which is on the platform being targeted by the acquisition
or tracking radar that is being jammed.
The formula for the jamming to signal ratio achieved by
self-protection jamming is:
J/S = ERPJ - ERPS + 71 + 20 log R
- 10 log RCS
Where: J/S is the jamming to signal noise in dB
ERPJ is the effective radiated power of the jammer in
dBm
ERPS is the effective radiated power of the jammed



JED - November 2017

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - November 2017

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
World Report
Forecast: Future of DIRCM
Sensor Fusion for 4th Gen Fighters
Technology Survey: ELINT Receivers
54th Annual AOC International Symposium and Convention Guide
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - November 2017 - intro
JED - November 2017 - cover1
JED - November 2017 - cover2
JED - November 2017 - 3
JED - November 2017 - 4
JED - November 2017 - 5
JED - November 2017 - The View From Here
JED - November 2017 - 7
JED - November 2017 - Conferences Calendar
JED - November 2017 - 9
JED - November 2017 - Courses Calendar
JED - November 2017 - 11
JED - November 2017 - From the President
JED - November 2017 - 13
JED - November 2017 - 14
JED - November 2017 - insert1
JED - November 2017 - insert2
JED - November 2017 - The Monitor
JED - November 2017 - 16
JED - November 2017 - 17
JED - November 2017 - 18
JED - November 2017 - 19
JED - November 2017 - 20
JED - November 2017 - 21
JED - November 2017 - 22
JED - November 2017 - 23
JED - November 2017 - World Report
JED - November 2017 - 25
JED - November 2017 - Forecast: Future of DIRCM
JED - November 2017 - 27
JED - November 2017 - 28
JED - November 2017 - 29
JED - November 2017 - 30
JED - November 2017 - 31
JED - November 2017 - 32
JED - November 2017 - 33
JED - November 2017 - 34
JED - November 2017 - Sensor Fusion for 4th Gen Fighters
JED - November 2017 - 36
JED - November 2017 - 37
JED - November 2017 - 38
JED - November 2017 - Technology Survey: ELINT Receivers
JED - November 2017 - 40
JED - November 2017 - 41
JED - November 2017 - 42
JED - November 2017 - 43
JED - November 2017 - 44
JED - November 2017 - 45
JED - November 2017 - 46
JED - November 2017 - 47
JED - November 2017 - 48
JED - November 2017 - 54th Annual AOC International Symposium and Convention Guide
JED - November 2017 - 50
JED - November 2017 - 51
JED - November 2017 - 52
JED - November 2017 - 53
JED - November 2017 - 54
JED - November 2017 - 55
JED - November 2017 - 56
JED - November 2017 - 57
JED - November 2017 - 58
JED - November 2017 - 59
JED - November 2017 - 60
JED - November 2017 - 61
JED - November 2017 - 62
JED - November 2017 - 63
JED - November 2017 - 64
JED - November 2017 - 65
JED - November 2017 - EW 101
JED - November 2017 - 67
JED - November 2017 - 68
JED - November 2017 - AOC News
JED - November 2017 - 70
JED - November 2017 - 71
JED - November 2017 - 72
JED - November 2017 - Index of Advertisers
JED - November 2017 - JED Quick Look
JED - November 2017 - cover3
JED - November 2017 - cover4
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