JED - December 2016 - 60

limited to software algorithms or does it
also include hardware? Is it part of the
EW system architecture? The EW community does not yet agree on this. ONR's
Tremper explains: "There are many degrees of dynamic operations and many
system parameters which can be adjusted within an adaptive closed-loop. It includes both the algorithmic techniques
and software for the dynamic spectrum
management and behavior as well as the
digital and analog hardware components
which can be digitally controlled to support spectrum agility."
"Adaptive EW is mostly enabled today
via software algorithms and enhancements, but there are potential adaptive
EW benefits if an EW system utilizes a
hardware architecture built specifically
for adaptive EW," says Anthony Nigara
of Harris. "In general, adaptive EW systems benefit from modern hardware
that supports complex signal processing techniques and can handle a high
level of complex processing operations
in real-time." BAE Systems' Niedzwiecki
notes, "The primary focus in this field is
on algorithms and software.

"Given the cost of making hardware
upgrades in terms of DOD procurement,
testing verification, platform integration, qualification and logistics and
maintenance, it is much more attractive
to add 'smarts' in the form of advanced
algorithm to existing DOD EW systems to
minimize costs. However, there is parallel work that includes making our hardware like our RF electronics increasingly
adaptive and flexible."
DARPA's Tilghman says, "Currently it
is restricted to software and algorithms.
However, what we've discovered is that
the hardware for modern EW systems
was not designed with an expectation
that we would one day make these systems intelligent. With that expectation in place now, we would like an EW
system to be able to perform far more
computation. As the community at large
starts to work towards 'second generation' cognitive EW, I suspect there will
be a renewed focus on the hardware and
computational aspects of such systems."
Cognitive EW capability can be realized in hardware as well as via software
algorithms, says Lockheed's Szumowski,

adding that some cognitive EW capabilities may only be possible through new
hardware advancements, such as GPUs
and neural networks. He explains that
on the sensor front, cognitive EW "requires more than just an energy detector, which is what was sufficient for
conventional systems and operations.
It requires higher quality detection
data, which may require improvement
to sensor bandwidths, A/D requirements, noise figure, etc." His colleague,
Dr. Rosenwinkel, says cognitive EW is
"primarily an algorithm technology, but
many of the new algorithms require new
computational hardware to make possible. Also, there is a fundamental interplay between the algorithms and the
sensors that feed it data. I second Tom's
point that the new algorithms often demand more of the hardware than past
algorithms did."
Of course, there are many broad technology trends, such as AI and machine
learning, which are fueling cognitive
EW development.
Szumowski says that deep learning research has also fed cognitive EW

The Journal of Electronic Defense | December 2016

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JED - December 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - December 2016

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Interview: Col Jeffrey N. Aldridge, USAF
Interview: US Rep. Joe Pitts
The Future of Airborne Electronic Attack
Regaining the Advantage – Cognitive Electronic Warfare
Technology Survey: Flightline and Portable EW Simulators
AOC EW Singapore Preview
New Products
Report from the 2016 EW GCC Conference
Crows in the Community
The Heat is On
EW 101
Report from the 2016 AOC CEMA Conference
2016 AOC Award Winners
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - December 2016 - cover1
JED - December 2016 - cover2
JED - December 2016 - 3
JED - December 2016 - 4
JED - December 2016 - 5
JED - December 2016 - The View From Here
JED - December 2016 - 7
JED - December 2016 - Conferences Calendar
JED - December 2016 - 9
JED - December 2016 - Courses Calendar
JED - December 2016 - 11
JED - December 2016 - From the President
JED - December 2016 - 13
JED - December 2016 - 14
JED - December 2016 - The Monitor
JED - December 2016 - insert1
JED - December 2016 - insert2
JED - December 2016 - 16
JED - December 2016 - 17
JED - December 2016 - 18
JED - December 2016 - 19
JED - December 2016 - 20
JED - December 2016 - 21
JED - December 2016 - 22
JED - December 2016 - 23
JED - December 2016 - 24
JED - December 2016 - 25
JED - December 2016 - Washington Report
JED - December 2016 - 27
JED - December 2016 - World Report
JED - December 2016 - 29
JED - December 2016 - Interview: Col Jeffrey N. Aldridge, USAF
JED - December 2016 - 31
JED - December 2016 - 32
JED - December 2016 - 33
JED - December 2016 - Interview: US Rep. Joe Pitts
JED - December 2016 - 35
JED - December 2016 - 36
JED - December 2016 - 37
JED - December 2016 - The Future of Airborne Electronic Attack
JED - December 2016 - 39
JED - December 2016 - 40
JED - December 2016 - 41
JED - December 2016 - 42
JED - December 2016 - 43
JED - December 2016 - 44
JED - December 2016 - 45
JED - December 2016 - 46
JED - December 2016 - 47
JED - December 2016 - 48
JED - December 2016 - 49
JED - December 2016 - 50
JED - December 2016 - 51
JED - December 2016 - 52
JED - December 2016 - 53
JED - December 2016 - 54
JED - December 2016 - 55
JED - December 2016 - Regaining the Advantage – Cognitive Electronic Warfare
JED - December 2016 - 57
JED - December 2016 - 58
JED - December 2016 - 59
JED - December 2016 - 60
JED - December 2016 - 61
JED - December 2016 - 62
JED - December 2016 - Technology Survey: Flightline and Portable EW Simulators
JED - December 2016 - 64
JED - December 2016 - 65
JED - December 2016 - 66
JED - December 2016 - 67
JED - December 2016 - 68
JED - December 2016 - 69
JED - December 2016 - 70
JED - December 2016 - AOC EW Singapore Preview
JED - December 2016 - 72
JED - December 2016 - 73
JED - December 2016 - New Products
JED - December 2016 - 75
JED - December 2016 - Report from the 2016 EW GCC Conference
JED - December 2016 - 77
JED - December 2016 - Crows in the Community
JED - December 2016 - 79
JED - December 2016 - The Heat is On
JED - December 2016 - 81
JED - December 2016 - 82
JED - December 2016 - 83
JED - December 2016 - 84
JED - December 2016 - 85
JED - December 2016 - EW 101
JED - December 2016 - 87
JED - December 2016 - 88
JED - December 2016 - 89
JED - December 2016 - Report from the 2016 AOC CEMA Conference
JED - December 2016 - 91
JED - December 2016 - 92
JED - December 2016 - 2016 AOC Award Winners
JED - December 2016 - 94
JED - December 2016 - 95
JED - December 2016 - 96
JED - December 2016 - 97
JED - December 2016 - 98
JED - December 2016 - 99
JED - December 2016 - AOC News
JED - December 2016 - 101
JED - December 2016 - 102
JED - December 2016 - 103
JED - December 2016 - 104
JED - December 2016 - Index of Advertisers
JED - December 2016 - JED Quick Look
JED - December 2016 - cover3
JED - December 2016 - cover4
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